Critical period effects in second language learning: The influence of maturational state on the acquisition of English as a second language Help with english as second language term paper Learners of English are often eager to get accreditation and a number of exams are known internationally: IELTS (International English Language Testing System) is the.

Help with english as second language term paper

English as a second or foreign language is the use of English by speakers with different native languages. Instruction for English-language learners may be known as English as a second language ESLEnglish as a foreign language EFLEnglish as an additional language EALor English for speakers of other languages ESOL. English as a foreign language EFL is used for non-native English speakers learning English in a country where English is not commonly spoken.

The term ESL has been misinterpreted by some to indicate that English would be of secondary importance. However, it simply refers to the order in which the language was learned, consistent with the linguistic terminology of second-language acquisition.

The term ESL can be a misnomer for some students who have learned several languages before learning English. In some programs, instructions are taught in both, English and their home language.

In other programs, instructions are only in English, but in a manner that is comprehensible to the students Wright, Yet, there are other programs in which ELLs are pulled out of the classroom for separate English instruction, or the instruction can also be given in the classroom itself Wright, English as a language has great reach help with english as second language term paper influence; it is taught all over the world.

In English-speaking countries, English language teaching has evolved in two broad directions: instruction for people who intend to live in countries where English dominates and instruction for those who do not.

These divisions have grown firmer as the instructors of these two "industries" have used different terminologyfollowed distinct training qualifications, formed separate professional associationsand so on.

Crucially, these two arms have very different funding structures, public in the former and private in the latter, and to some extent this influences the way schools are established and classes are held.

Matters are further complicated by the fact that the United States and the United Kingdomboth major engines of the language, describe these categories in different terms. Although English is the principal language in both the US and the United Kingdom, it differs between the two countries, primarily in pronunciation and vocabulary.

For example, some words and phrases that are inoffensive in the US are offensive in the UK and vice versa. These differences are the butt of many jokes. Similarly, Bertrand Russell said: "It is a misfortune for Anglo-American friendship that the two countries are supposed to have a common language. The precise usage, including the different use of the terms ESL and ESOL in different countries, is described below. These terms are most commonly used in relation to teaching and learning English as a second languagebut they may also be used in relation to demographic information.

Teaching English as a second TESLteaching English to speakers of other languages TESOLand teaching English as a foreign language TEFL are also used.

Those who are learning English are often referred to as English language learners ELL. EFLEnglish as a foreign language, indicates the teaching of English in a non—English-speaking region.

TEFL is the teaching of English as a foreign language ; note that this sort of instruction can take place in any country, English-speaking or not. EFL may be part of the state school curriculum in countries where English has no special status what linguistic theorist Braj Kachru calls the "expanding circle countries" ; it may also be supplemented by lessons paid for privately.

Teachers of EFL generally assume that students are literate in their mother tongue. The Chinese EFL Journal [3] and Iranian EFL Journal [4] are examples of international journals dedicated to specifics of English language learning within countries where English is used as a foreign language. The other broad grouping is the use of English within the English-speaking world.

In what Braj Kachru calls "the inner circle", i. It also includes the use of English in "outer circle" countries, often help with english as second language term paper British colonies and the Philippineswhere English is an official language even if it is not spoken as a mother tongue by a majority of the population.

In the US, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand this use of English is called ESL English as a second language. This term has been criticized on the grounds that many learners already speak more than one language. A counter-argument says that the word "a" in the phrase "a second language" means there is no presumption that English is the second acquired language see also Second language.

TESL is help with english as second language term paper teaching of English as a second language. There are also other terms that it may be referred to in the US including: ELL English Language Learner and CLD Culturally and Linguistically Diverse. In the UK and Ireland, the term ESL has been replaced by ESOL English for speakers of other languages. In these countries TESOL teaching English to speakers of other languages is normally used to refer to teaching English only to this group.

The term ESOL is used to describe English language learners who are above statutory school age. Other acronyms were created check this out describe the person rather than the language to be learned. The term Limited Help with english as second language term paper proficiency LEP was first used in by the Lau Remedies following a decision of the U.

ELL English Language Learnerused by United States governments and school systems, was created by James Crawford of the Institute for Language and Education Policy in an effort to label learners positively, rather than ascribing a deficiency to them. Recently, some educators have shortened this to EL — English Learner.

Typically, a student learns this sort of English to function in the new host country, e. The teaching of it does not presuppose literacy in the mother tongue. It is usually paid for by the host government to help newcomers settle into their adopted country, sometimes as part of an explicit citizenship program.

It is technically possible for ESL to be taught not in the host country, but in, for example, a refugee camp, as part of a pre-departure program sponsored by the government soon to receive new potential citizens.

In practice, however, this is extremely rare. Particularly in Canada and Australia, the term ESD English as a second dialect is used alongside ESL, usually in reference to programs for aboriginal Canadians or Click the following article. The term refers click the use of standard English by speakers of a creole or non-standard variety.

All these ways of denoting the teaching of English can be bundled together into an umbrella term. Unfortunately, not all of the English teachers in the world would agree on just only a simply single term s. The term TESOL teaching English to speakers of other languages is used in American English to include both TEFL and TESL. This is also the case in Canada as well as in Australia and New Zealand.

British English uses ELT English language teachingbecause TESOL has a different, more specific meaning; see above. Several models of "simplified English" have been suggested or developed for international communication, among them: Language teaching practice often go here that most of the difficulties that learners face in the study of English are a consequence of the degree to which their native language differs from English a contrastive analysis approach.

A native speaker of Chinesefor example, may face many more difficulties than a native speaker of Germanbecause German is more closely related to English than Chinese is. This may be true for anyone of any mother tongue also called first language, normally abbreviated L1 setting out to learn any other language called a target languagesecond language or L2.

See also second language acquisition SLA for mixed evidence from linguistic research. Language learners often produce errors of syntaxvocabularyand pronunciation thought to result from the influence of their L1, such as mapping its grammatical patterns inappropriately onto the L2, pronouncing certain sounds incorrectly or with difficulty, and confusing items of vocabulary known as false friends.

This is known as L1 transfer or "language interference". Some students may have very different cultural perceptions in the classroom as far as learning a second language is concerned.

Cultural differences in communication styles and preferences are also significant. For example, a study looked at Chinese ESL students and British teachers and found that the Chinese learners did not see classroom discussion and interaction as important but placed a heavy emphasis on teacher-directed lectures. Speakers of languages without these sounds may have problems both with hearing and with pronouncing them. For example: Languages may also differ in syllable structure help with english as second language term paper English allows for a cluster of up to three click before the vowel and five after it e.

Japanese and Brazilian Portuguesefor example, broadly alternate help with english as second language term paper and vowel sounds so learners from Japan and Brazil often force vowels help with english as second language term paper the consonants e.

Similarly, in most Iberian dialects, a word can begin with [s]and [s] can be followed by a consonant, but a word can never begin with [s] immediately followed by a consonant, so learners whose mother tongue is in this language family often have a vowel in front of the word e. Learners who have had less than eight years of formal education in their first language are sometimes called adult ESL literacy learners.

Usually these learners have had their first-language education interrupted. For example, these learners may lack study skills and transferable language skills, [13] [14] and these learners may avoid reading or writing.

These language skills usually develop within six months to two years. Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency CALP refers to the language associated with formal content material and academic learning. These skills usually help with english as second language term paper from five to seven years to develop. There is also debate about "meaning-focused" learning and "correction-focused" learning. Supporters for the former think that using speech as the way to explain meaning is more important.

However, supporters of the latter do not agree with that and instead think that grammar and correct habit is more important. Language has a very help with english as second language term paper role in our lives. It symbolizes the cultures in our societies where individuals interact and use it to communicate between each other. The development of transportation has influenced global relations to be more practical where people need to interact and share common interests.

However, communication is the key power to facilitate interactions among individuals which would provide them with stronger relationships. In places like the United States where immigration plays a role in social, economic and cultural aspects, there is an increase in the number of new immigrants yearly. Therefore, society forces them to improve their communication skills as soon as possible.

Immigrants cannot afford to waste time learning to speak English especially for those who come with certain financial issues.

The most common choice people make to build up their communication skills is to help with english as second language term paper some ESL classes. There are many steps that need to be followed in order to be successful in this aspect. However, the use of new technology makes the learning process more convenient, reliable and productive. Computers have made an entry into education in the past decades and have brought significant benefits to teachers and students alike.

Computer Assisted Language Learning CALL is a system which aids learners to improve and practice language skills. It provides a stress-free environment for learners and makes them more responsible.

The computer can be used to test students about help with english as second language term paper language they already learn.

It can assist them in practicing certain tasks. The computer permits students to communicate easily with other students in different places.

For instance, blogs can allow English learners to voice their opinions,sharpen their writing skills and build their confidence. However, some who are introverted may not feel sharing their ideas on the blog.

Class wikis can be used to promote collaborative learning through sharing and co-constructing knowledge. The learning ability of language learners can be more reliable with help with english as second language term paper influence of the a dictionary. Learners tend to carry or are required to have a dictionary which allows them to learn independently and become more responsible for their own work.

In these modern days, education has upgraded its methods of teaching and learning with dictionaries where digital materials are being applied as tools.

Most of them contain native-language equivalents and explanations, as well as definitions and example sentences in English. They can speak the English word to the learner, and they are easy to carry around.

However, they are expensive and easy to lose, so students are often instructed to put their names on them. Some professionals in the field have recommended incorporating information about non-standard forms of English in ESL programs. For example, in advocating for classroom-based instruction in African-American English also known as Ebonicslinguist Richard McDorman has argued, "Simply put, the ESL syllabus must break free of the longstanding intellectual imperiousness of the standard to embrace instruction that encompasses the many "Englishes" that learners will encounter and thereby achieve the culturally responsive pedagogy so often advocated by leaders in the field.

Students are help with english as second language term paper placed into low ability groups based on scores on standardized tests in English and Math. Students have voiced frustration that only non-native students have to prove their language skills, when being a native speaker in no way guarantees college level academic literacy.

The National Center for Education Statistics NCES in the United States help with english as second language term paper that the percentage of dropouts in the non-native born Hispanic youth population between the ages of 16 and 24 years old is Schools that risk losing funding, closing, or having their principals fired if test scores are not high enough begin to view students that do not perform well on standardized tests as liabilities. Most colleges and universities require four years of English in high school.

In addition, most colleges and universities only accept one year of ESL English. This results in many ESL students not having the correct credits to apply for college, or enrolling in summer school to finish the required courses. In addition, while many ESL students receive a Pell Grantthe maximum help with english as second language term paper for the year — covered only about a third of the cost of college.

Some ESL students avoid interactions with native speakers because of their frustration or embarrassment at their poor English. Immigrant students often also lack knowledge of popular culturewhich limits their conversations with native speakers to academic topics. In most mainstream classrooms, teacher-led discussion is the most common form of lesson. In this setting, some ESL students will fail to participate, and often have difficulty understanding teachers because they talk too fast, do not use visual aids, or use native colloquialisms.

ESL students also have trouble getting involved with extracurricular activities with native speakers for similar reasons. Students fail to join extra-curricular activities because of the language barriercultural emphasis of academics over other activities, or failure to understand traditional in their new country.

Having class among other students learning English as a second language relieves the pressure of making mistakes when speaking in class or to peers. ESL programs also allow students to be among others who appreciate their native language and culturethe expression of which is often not supported or encouraged in mainstream settings. ESL programs also allow students to meet and form friendships with other non-native speakers from different cultures, promoting racial tolerance and multiculturalism.

The goal of this dynamic is to help both the tutor, in this case the English speaker, and the tutee, the ESL student. Monolingual tutors are given the class material in order to provide tutoring to their assigned ESL tutee. Once the tutor has had the chance to help the student, classmates get to switch roles in order to give both peers an opportunity to learn from each other.

In a study, which conducted a similar research, their results indicated that low-achieving readers that were chosen as tutors, made a lot of progress by schienen best admission paper editing websites uk nГchste this procedure. In addition, ESL students were also able to improve their grades due to the fact that they increased their approach in reading acquisition skills.

Students placed in ESL program learn together along with other non-English speakers, however by using peer tutoring in classroom it will avoid the separation between regular English classes and ESL classes. These programs will promote community between students that will be helping each other grow academically. It was proven that peer tutoring is the most effective and no cost form of teaching [39] It has been proven that peer-mediated tutoring is an effective tool to help ESL students succeed academically.

Peer tutoring has been utilized across many different academic courses and the outcomes for those students that have different learning abilities are outstanding.

Classmates who were actively involved with other peers in tutoring had better academic standing than those students who were not part of the tutoring program. It was also found that the literature on the efficacy of peer tutoring service combined with regular classroom teaching, is the best methodology practice that help with english as second language term paper effective, that benefits students, teachers, and parents involved.

Three different approaches were the focus in which immersing students in English from the very beginning and teaching them reading only in that language; teaching students in Spanish first, followed by English; and teaching students to read in Spanish and English simultaneously.

This occurs through a strategic approach such as structured English immersion or sheltered instruction. Findings showed that the paired bilingual reading approach appeared to work as well as, or better than, the English-only reading approach in terms of reading growth and results. In fact, research says that the quality of their teaching methods is what matters the most when it comes to educating English learners. It was also mentioned how it is highly important for help with english as second language term paper to have the drive to help these students succeed and "feel personal responsibility.

There is a high need for comprehensive professional development for teachers in the ESL program. Although peer tutoring has been proven to be an effective way of learning that engages and promotes academic achievement in students, does it have an effect on the achievement speech writer site united states It is an obvious fact that there is a large academic performance disparity between White, Black, and Latino students, and it continues to be an issue that help with english as second language term paper to be targeted.

However it was mentioned that by developing effective peer tutoring programs in schools could be a factor that can potentially decrease the achievement gap in the United States. ESOL learners in England, Wales and Northern Ireland usually take the national Skills for Life qualifications, which are offered by several exam boards. People in Taiwan often take the General English Proficiency Test GEPT. In Greece English students may take the PALSO PanHellenic Association of Language School Owners exams.

The aim of help with english as second language term paper framework was to have a common system for foreign language testing and certification, to cover all European languages and countries. Each of these levels is divided into two sections, resulting in a total of six levels for testing A1, A2, B1, etc.

Most people who teach English are in fact not native speakers. They are state school teachers in countries around the world, and as such they hold the relevant teaching qualification of their country, usually with a specialization in teaching English.

For example, teachers in Hong Kong hold the Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers. Those who work in private language schools may, from commercial pressures, have the same qualifications as native speakers see below.

Widespread problems exist of minimal qualifications and poor quality providers of training, and as the industry becomes more professional, it is trying to self-regulate to eliminate these. A certificate course is usually undertaken before starting to teach. This is sufficient for most EFL jobs see TEFL for an extended discussion of travel-teaching and for some ESOL ones. CertTESOL Certificate in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languagesissued by Trinity, and CELTA Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adultsissued by Cambridge, are the most widely taken and accepted qualifications for new teacher trainees.

Courses are offered in the UK and in many countries around the world. It is usually taught full-time over a one-month period or part-time over a period up to a year. Teachers with two or more years of teaching experience who want to stay in the profession and advance their career prospects including school management and teacher training can take a diploma course.

Help with english as second language term paper offers the Trinity Licentiate Diploma in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages DipTESOL and Cambridge offers the Diploma in English Language Teaching to Adults DELTA. These diplomas are considered to be equivalent and are both accredited at level 7 of the revised National Qualifications Framework. Some teachers who stay in the profession go on to do an MA in a relevant discipline such as applied linguistics or ELT.

The help with english as second language term paper qualifications are well-respected within the UK EFL sector, including private language schools and higher education language provision. Teachers of any subject within the British state sector are normally expected to hold a PGCE, and may choose to specialise in ELT. Teachers teaching adult ESL in Canada in the federally funded Language Instruction to Newcomers LINC program must be TESL certified.

Most employers in Ontario encourage certification by TESL Ontario. Often this requires completing an eight-month graduate certificate program at an accredited university or college. See the TESL Ontario or TESL Canada websites for more information.

Other degrees may be a Master in Adult Education and Training or Applied Linguistics. There are also a growing number of online programs offering TESOL degrees. The qualifications for these classroom teachers vary from state to state but always include a state-issued teaching certificate for public instruction. This state licensing requires substantial practical experience as well as course work. This may be called an "endorsement". Endorsement programs may be part of a graduate program or may be completed independently to add the endorsement to the initial teaching certificate An MA in TESOL may or may not meet individual state requirements for K public school teachers.

It is important to determine if a graduate program is designed to prepare teachers for adult top ghostwriting for hire for or K education. The MA in TESOL typically includes second language acquisition theory, linguistics, pedagogy, and an internship.

A program will also likely have specific classes on skills such as reading, writing, pronunciation, and grammar. Many graduate students also participate in teaching practica or clinicals, which provide the opportunity to gain experience in classrooms.

It is important to note that the issuance of a teaching certificate or license for K teachers is not automatic following completion of degree requirements. All teachers must complete a battery of exams typically the Praxis test or a specific state test subject and method exams or similar, state-sponsored exams as well as supervised instruction as student teachers.

Often, ESL certification can be obtained through extra college coursework. ESL certifications are usually only valid when paired with an already existing teaching certificate. Certification requirements for ESL teachers vary greatly from state to state; out-of-state teaching certificates are recognized if the two states have a reciprocity agreement. Native speakers will often be able to find work as an English teacher in Chile help with english as second language term paper an ESL teaching certificate.

However, many private institutes give preference to teachers with a TEFL, CELTA or TESOL certificate. The Chilean Ministry of Education also sponsors the English Opens Doors program, which recruits native English speakers to come work as teaching assistants in Chilean public schools. Note that some of the terms below may be restricted to one or more countries, or may be used with different meanings in different countries, particularly the US and UK.

See further discussion is Terminology and types above. For other uses, see ESL disambiguation. Main articles: Non-native pronunciations of English and Accent reduction For further discussion of English spelling patterns and rules, see Phonics. See also: Category:English language tests Main article: Common European Framework of Reference for Languages See also: Language education. Foundations for Teaching English Language Learners: Research, Theory, Policy, and Practice.

The Iranian EFL Journal. Grzega, Joachim"Reflection on Concepts of English for Europe: British English, American English, Euro-English, Global English"Journal for EuroLinguistiX 2: 44—64, and Grzega, Joachim"Towards Global English via Basic Global English BGE : Socioeconomic and Pedagogic Ideas for a European and Global Language with Didactic Examples for Native Speakers of GermanJournal for EuroLinguistiX 2: 65—, and the press releases accessible via the Basic Global English website.

Quirk, Randolph"International Communication and the Concept of Nuclear English", in: Smith, Larry E.

Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 8 November Ottawa: Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks. Adult English Language Learners with Limited Literacy. National Institute for Literacy. Language Learning, 62 2— TESOL Quarterly, 27 3—". Early Reading Instruction Cambridge: MIT Press Identifying reliable generalizations for spelling words: The importance of multilevel analysis.

The Elementary School Journal 2— Retrieved June 17, ACM SIGSCE Bulletin, 37 1 Journal of Language, Identity and Education. The Internet TESL Journal. Peer Tutoring with ESL and Below-Average Readers. Journal of Behavior Education, Vol. Effects of explicit teaching and peer tutoring on the reading achievement of learning-disabled and low-performing students in regular classrooms. The Elementary School Journal, 95 5 Peer Tutoring Systems: Applications in Classroom and Specialized Environments.

Effects of a paired bilingual reading program and an English-only program on the help with english as second language term paper performance of English learners in Grades 1—3. Journal of School Psychology, 50 6 Effective Instruction for English Learners.

The Future of Children, 21 1 A call for change: Narrowing the achievement gap between white and minority students. Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues, and Ideas, 84 2 Given that there are thousands of tertiary institutions that accept one or more of these for entrance requirements, they simply can not be footnoted individually here.

Retrieved May 18, Journal of Technology and Teacher Education. The International Research Foundation for English Language Education. Retrieved 21 July English as a lingua franca. English as a second or foreign language. English for specific purposes. List of countries where English is an official language.

List of countries by English-speaking population. Most commonly learned foreign languages in the U. EF English Proficiency Index. Stages of formal education.

Democratic Republic of the Congo. Republic of the Congo. Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. British Indian Ocean Territory. Saint Kitts and Nevis. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Saint Pierre and Miquelon. Turks and Caicos Islands. United States Virgin Islands. Federated States of Micronesia.

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English As A Second Language Essay Examples. My Personal Experiences with American English Language Programs.

How People Benefit from Learning a Second Language. The Importance of Learning a Second Language in Http:// A History help with english as second language term paper the English Language. History of English Language. Language Discrimination and Language Policy at Home. Why Join Creative Writing Society?

A Look at the History of the English Language. The Importance of Learning the English Language Proficiently. An Argument Against English-Only Policy in the United States.

A Personal Recount on English Language and Its Variations. An Introduction to Knowing English Language in the United States. The Evolution of the English Article source Through Time. The Standardization of the English Language and the Story of the English Language in History.

An Introduction to the ELL or English Language Learners. The Significance of the English Class. The Process of Language Acquisition. Foreign Language Education Should Begin in America. An Argument in Favor of Learning Spanish Language as A Secondary Foreign Language. How to Learn a Foreign Language. Writing an Academic Essay.

How to Write Basic Topic Sentences & Paragraphs ESL

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