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Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity. Depending on the context, these characteristics may include biological sex i. Sexologist John Money introduced the terminological distinction between biological sex and gender as a role in Before his work, it was uncommon to use the word gender to refer to anything but grammatical categories.
Today the distinction is strictly followed in some contexts, especially the social sciences   and documents written by the World Health Organization WHO.
Other sciences, such as sexology and neuroscienceare also interested in the subject. While the social sciences sometimes approach gender as a social constructand gender studies particularly do, research in the natural sciences investigates whether biological differences in males and females influence the development of gender in humans; both inform debate about how far biological differences influence the formation of gender identity.
In the English literature, there is also a trichotomy between biological sex, psychological gender, and social gender role. This framework first appeared in a feminist paper on transsexualism in This, in turn, came from Latin genus. Both words mean "kind", "type", or "sort". They derive ultimately from a widely attested Proto-Indo-European PIE root g e n-  which is also the source of kinkindkingand many other English words.
The first edition of the Oxford English Dictionary OED1, Volume 4, notes the original meaning of gender as "kind" had already become obsolete. The word was still widely attested, however, in the specific sense of grammatical gender the assignment of nouns to categories such as masculinefeminine and neuter.
According to Aristotlethis concept was introduced by the Greek philosopher Help with my women and gender studies term paper. To talk of persons The theory was that human nature is essentially epicene and social distinctions based on sex are arbitrarily constructed. Matters pertaining to this theoretical process of social construction were labelled matters of gender.
The popular use of gender simply as an alternative to sex as a biological category is also widespread, although attempts are still made to preserve the distinction.
The American Heritage Dictionary uses the following two sentences to illustrate the difference, noting that the distinction "is useful in principle, but it is by no means widely observed, and considerable variation in usage occurs at all levels. In peasant societies, gender not sex roles are likely to be more clearly defined. In the last two decades of the 20th century, the use of gender in academia has increased greatly, outnumbering uses of sex in the social sciences. While the spread of the word in science publications can be attributed to the influence of feminism, its use as a synonym for sex is attributed to the failure to grasp the distinction made in feminist theory, and the distinction has sometimes become blurred with the theory itself: "Among the reasons that working scientists have given me for choosing gender rather than sex in biological contexts are desires to signal sympathy with feminist goals, to use a more academic term, or to avoid the connotation of copulation".
The term woman has historically been used interchangeably with reference to the female body, though more recently this usage has been viewed as controversial by some feminists. The groups people belong to therefore provide members with the definition of who they are and how they should behave within their social sphere. The gender system is the basis of social patterns in many societies, which include the separation of sexes, and the primacy of masculine norms.
Such as, being female characterizes one as a woman, and being a woman signifies one as weak, emotional, and irrational, and is incapable of actions attributed to a "man". Butler said that gender and sex are more like verbs than nouns. She reasoned that her actions are limited because she is female. The assignment of gender involves taking into account the physiological and biological attributes assigned by nature followed by the imposition of the socially constructed conduct.
The social label of being classified into one or the other sex is necessary for the medical stamp on birth certificates. Gender is a term used to exemplify the attributes that a society or culture constitutes as "masculine" or "feminine". It is also important to note that learning gender roles starts from birth and includes seemingly simple things like what professional university review advice outfits a baby is clothed in or what toys they are given to play with.
The cultural traits typically coupled to a particular sex finalize the assignment of gender and article source biological differences which play a role in classifying either sex as interchangeable with the definition of gender within the social context.
In this context, the socially constructed rules are at a cross road with the assignment of a particular gender to a person. Gender ambiguity deals with having the freedom to choose, manipulate and create a personal niche within any defined socially constructed code of conduct while gender fluidity is outlawing all the rules of cultural gender assignment.
It does not accept the prevalence of the two rigidly defined genders "man" and "woman" and believes in freedom to choose any kind of gender with no rules, no defined boundaries and no fulfilling of expectations associated with any particular gender. Both these definitions are facing opposite directions with their own defined set of rules and criteria on which the said systems are based.
Sexologist John Money coined the term gender role in The term read article role is defined as the actions or responses that may reveal their status as boy, man, girl or woman, respectively. It includes, but is not restricted to, sexuality in the sense of eroticism. In contrast to help with my women and gender studies term paper approaches, some feminist philosophers have argued that gender "is a vast orchestration of subtle mediations between oneself and others", rather than a "private cause behind manifest behaviours".
Most societies have only two distinct, broad classes of gender roles, masculine and feminine, that correspond with the source sexes of male and female.
When a baby is born, society allocates the child to one sex or the other, on the basis of what their genitals resemble. Other societies include well-developed roles that are explicitly considered more or less distinct from archetypal female and male roles in those societies.
In the language of the sociology of genderthey comprise a third gender help with my women and gender studies term paper or less distinct from biological sex sometimes the basis for the role does include intersexuality or incorporates eunuchs.
Assumptions of the unidimensional model were challenged as societal stereotypes changed, which led to the development of a two-dimensional gender identity model. In the model, masculinity and femininity were conceptualized as two separate and orthogonal dimensions, coexisting in varying degrees within an individual.
This conceptualization on femininity and masculinity remains the accepted standard today. Both instruments categorize individuals as either being sex typed males report themselves as identifying primarily with masculine traits, females report themselves as identifying primarily with feminine traitscross sex-typed males report themselves as identifying primarily with feminine traits, females report themselves as identifying primarily with masculine traitsandrogynous either males or females who report themselves as high on both masculine and feminine traits or undifferentiated either males or females who report themselves as low on both masculine and feminine traits.
However, it may be analyzed in terms of biology—a girl must pass puberty to become a woman—and sociology, continue reading a great deal of mature relating in social contexts is learned rather than instinctive.
In gender studies the term gender refers to proposed social and cultural constructions of masculinities and femininities. In this context, gender explicitly excludes reference to biological differences, to focus on cultural differences. Those who followed Butler came to regard gender roles as a practice, sometimes referred to as " performative ". Hurst states that some people think sex will, " For example, Michael Schwalbe believes that humans must be taught how to act appropriately in their designated gender to fill the role properly, and that the way people behave as masculine or feminine interacts with social expectations.
Schwalbe comments that humans "are the results of many people embracing and acting on similar ideas". Schwalbe believes that these distinctions are important, because society wants to identify and categorize people as soon as we see them.
They need to place people into distinct categories to know how we should feel about them. Hurst comments that in a society where we present our genders so distinctly, there can often be severe help with my women and gender studies term paper for breaking these cultural norms.
Many of these consequences are rooted in discrimination based on sexual orientation. Gays and lesbians are often discriminated against in our legal system because of societal prejudices. He says that "courts often confuse sex, gender, and sexual orientation, and confuse them in a way that results help with my women and gender studies term paper denying the rights not only of gays and lesbians, but also of those who do not present themselves or act in a manner traditionally expected of their sex".
Andrea Dworkin stated her "commitment to destroying male dominance and gender itself" while stating help with my women and gender studies term paper belief in radical feminism.
She notes that a transition occurred when several feminist scholars, such as Sandra Harding and Joan Scottbegan to conceive of gender "as an analytic category within which humans think about and organize their social activity". Feminist scholars in Political Science began employing gender as an analytical category, which highlighted "social and political relations neglected by mainstream accounts". However, Hawkesworth states "feminist political science has not become a dominant paradigm within the discipline".
It may also demonstrate how gender differences, not necessarily corresponding precisely with sex, may "constrain or facilitate political" actors.
Gender as a process has two central manifestations in political science research, firstly in determining "the differential effects of structures and policies upon men and women," and secondly, the ways in which masculine and feminine political actors "actively work to produce favorable gendered outcomes". Gendering is a socially constructed process based on culture, though often cultural expectations around women and men have a direct relationship to their biology. Because of this, Newman argues, many privilege sex as being a cause of oppression and ignore other issues like race, ability, poverty, etc.
She also points out that other non-Western cultures do not necessarily have the same views of gender and gender roles. Newman believes this is problematic because there is no unified definition as to what equality means or looks like, and that this can be significantly important in areas like public policy. For instance, sexologist John Money suggests the distinction between biological sex and gender as a role.
However, there are scholars who argue that sex is also socially constructed. Gender should not be conceived merely as the cultural inscription of meaning based on a given sex a juridical conception ; gender must also designate the very apparatus of production whereby the sexes themselves are established. She argues that colonial cheap admission paper websites for school used a gender system as a tool for domination and fundamentally changing social relations among the indigenous.
She argues that male and female genitals were considered inherently the same in Western society until the 18th century. At that time, female genitals were regarded as incomplete male genitals, and the difference between the two was conceived as a matter of degree. In other words, there was a gradation of physical forms, or a spectrum. Therefore, the current perspective toward sex, which is to consider help with my women and gender studies term paper and men and their typical genitalia as the only possible natural options, came into existence through historical, not biological roots.
She starts her argument with an example of the birth of an intersexual individual and maintains "our conceptions of the nature of gender difference shape, even as they reflect, the ways we structure our social system and polity; they also shape and reflect our understanding of our physical bodies. After describing how help with my women and gender studies term paper doctors inform parents about the intersexuality, she asserts that because the doctors believe that the intersexuals are actually male or female, they tell the parents of the intersexuals that it will take a little bit more time for the doctors to determine whether the infant is a boy or a girl.
Lastly, she maintains this web page the differences in the ways in which the medical professionals in different regions treat intersexual people also give us a good example of how sex is socially constructed. Saudi doctors trained in this European tradition recommended such a course of action to the Saudi parents of CAH XX children.
A number of parents, however, refused to accept the recommendation that their child, initially identified as a son, be raised instead as a daughter. Nor would they accept feminizing surgery for their child. In this article, Fausto-Sterling states that Western culture has only two sexes and that even their language restricts the presence of more than two sexes.
She argues that instead of having a binomial nomenclature for organizing humans into two distinct sexes male popular editing services article ca review femalethere are at least five sexes in the broad spectrum of gender.
These five sexes include male, female, hermaphrodite, female pseudohermaphrodites individuals who have ovaries and some male genitalia but lack testesand male pseudohermaphrodites individuals who have testes and some female genitalia but lack ovaries. Fausto-Sterling additionally adds go here in the category of hermaphrodites, there are additional degrees and levels in which the genitalia are developed; this means that there may be more intersexes that exist in this continuum of gender.
Fausto-Sterling argues that sex has been gradually institutionally disciplined into a binary system through medical advances. She brings up multiple instances where gender in history was not split into strictly male or female, Fausto-Sterling mentioned that by the end of the Middle Age, intersex individuals were forced to pick a side in the binary gender code and to adhere by it.
She emphasizes that the role of the medical community is that of an institutionalized discipline on society that there can only be two sexes: help with my women and gender studies term paper and female and only the two listed are considered "normal. She finishes up her argument asking what would happen if society started accepting intersex individuals.
The article Adolescent Gender-Role Identity and Mental Health: Gender Check this out Revisited focuses on the work of Heather A. Lindberg, and Janet Shibley Hyde on whether or not girls and boys diverge in their gender identities during adolescent years. The coauthors argue that daily people are forced to acknowledge and interact with others in ways that are related to gender. Ridgeway and Correll then shift their topic towards sex categorization.
The authors define sex categorization as "the sociocognitive process by which we label another as male or female. Studies on other gendered behavior are inconsistent, however some evidence indicates other gendered behavior is influenced by prenatal and early life androgen exposure.
These levels may also influence sexuality, with non-heterosexual persons exhibiting sex atypical behavior in childhood. One of the earliest areas of interest was what became known as "gender identity disorder" GID and which is now also described as gender dysphoria. Studies help with my women and gender studies term paper this, and related areas, inform the following summary of the subject by John Money. He stated: The term "gender role" appeared in print first in The term gender identity was used in a press release, November 21,to announce the new clinic for transsexuals at The Johns Hopkins Hospital.
It was disseminated in the media worldwide, and soon entered the vernacular. The definitions of gender and gender identity vary on a doctrinal basis. In popularized and scientifically debased usage, sex is what you are biologically; gender is what you become socially; gender identity is your own sense or conviction of maleness or femaleness; and gender role is the cultural stereotype of what is masculine and feminine.
Causality with respect to gender identity disorder is sub-divisible into genetic, prenatal hormonal, postnatal social, and post-pubertal hormonal determinants, but there is, as yet, no comprehensive and detailed theory of causality. Gender coding in the brain is bipolar. These extend from the exclusively biological "genetic" and "prenatal hormonal" differences between men and women, to "postnatal" features, some of which are social, but others have been shown to result from "post-pubertal hormonal" effects.
Although causation from the biological— genetic and hormonal —to the behavioral has been broadly demonstrated and accepted, Money is link to also note that understanding of the causal chains from biology to behavior in sex and gender issues is very far from complete.
For example, the existence of a " gay gene " has not been proven, but such a gene remains an acknowledged possibility. These women usually have ordinary female appearances though nearly all girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia CAH have corrective surgery performed on their genitals. However, despite taking hormone-balancing medication given to them at help with my women and gender studies term paper, these females are statistically more likely to be interested in activities traditionally linked to males than female activities.
Psychology professor and CAH researcher Dr. Sheri Berenbaum attributes these differences to an exposure of higher levels of male help with my women and gender studies term paper hormones in utero.
In sexually reproducing species, individuals produce special kinds of cells called gametes whose function is specifically to fuse with one unlike gamete and thereby to form a new individual.
This fusion of two unlike gametes is called fertilization. By convention, where one type of gamete cell is physically larger than the other, it is associated with female sex. Thus an individual that produces exclusively large gametes ova in humans is called femaleand one that produces exclusively small gametes spermatozoa in humans is called male.
An individual that produces both types of gametes is called hermaphrodite a name applicable also to people with one testis and one ovary. In some species hermaphrodites can self-fertilize see Selfingin others they can achieve fertilization with females, males or both. Some species, like the Japanese Ash, Fraxinus lanuginosaonly have males and hermaphrodites, a rare reproductive system called androdioecy.
Gynodioecy is also found help with my women and gender studies term paper several species. Human hermaphrodites are typically, but not always, infertile. What is considered defining of sexual reproduction is the difference between the gametes and the binary nature of fertilization.
Multiplicity of gamete types within a species would still be considered a form of sexual reproduction. However, of more than 1. A few rare species that push the boundaries of the definitions are the subject of active research for light they may shed on the mechanisms of the evolution of sex.
For example, the most toxic insect,  the harvester ant Pogonomyrmexhas two kinds of female and two kinds of male. One hypothesis is that the species is a hybridevolved from two closely related preceding species. Fossil records indicate that sexual reproduction has been occurring for at least one billion years. It appears that the ability to reproduce sexually has evolved independently in various species on many occasions.
There are cases where it has also been lost, notably among the Fungi Imperfecti. Please click for source is placed in roughly chronological order of biological and social development in the human life cycle.
The earlier stages are more purely biological and the latter are more dominantly social. Causation is known to operate from chromosome to gonads, and from gonads to hormones. It is also significant from brain structure to gender identity see Money quote above. Brain structure and processing biological that may explain erotic preference socialhowever, is an area of ongoing research.
Terminology in some areas changes quite rapidly as knowledge grows. Although sexual reproduction is defined at the cellular level, key features of sexual reproduction operate within the structures of the gamete cells themselves. Notably, gametes carry very long molecules called DNA that the biological processes of reproduction can "read" like a book of instructions. In fact, there are typically many of these "books", called chromosomes. Human gametes usually have 23 chromosomes, 22 of which are common to both sexes.
The final chromosomes in the two human gametes are called sex chromosomes because of their role in help with my women and gender studies term paper determination. Ova always have the same sex chromosome, labelled X. About half of spermatozoa also have this same X chromosome, the rest have a Y-chromosome. At fertilization the gametes fuse to form a cell, usually with 46 chromosomes, and either XX female or XY male, depending on whether the sperm carried an X or a Y chromosome.
Some of the other possibilities are listed above. The human XY system is not the only sex determination system. Birds typically have a reverse, ZW system—males are ZZ and females ZW. Several species of butterfly are known to have female parent sex determination.
These disciplines study gender and sexuality in the fields of literature and language, historypolitical sciencesociologyanthropologycinema and media studieshuman development, law, and medicine. They contain "sentences" called genes. Check this out fact, many of these sentences are common to multiple species. Sometimes they are organized in the same order, other times they have been "edited"—deleted, copied, changed, moved, even relocated to another "book", as species evolve.
Genes are a particularly important part of understanding biological processes because they are directly associated with observable objects, outside chromosomes, called proteinswhose influence on cell chemistry can be measured. In some cases genes can also be directly associated with differences clear to the naked eye, like eye-color itself.
Some of these differences are sex specific, like hairy ears. The "hairy ear" gene might be found on the Y chromosome,  which explains why only men tend to have hairy ears. However, sex-limited genes on any chromosome can be expressed and "say", for example, " if you are in a male body do X, otherwise do not. The study of genetics is particularly inter-disciplinary. It is relevant to almost every biological science.
It is investigated in detail by molecular level sciences, and itself contributes details to high level abstractions like evolutionary theory.
Other differences are measurable but less pronounced. However, differences that arise directly from gene activity have also been observed. A sexual dimorphism in levels of expression in brain tissue was observed help with my women and gender studies term paper quantitative real-time PCRwith females presenting an up to 2-fold excess in the abundance of PCDH11X transcripts. We relate these findings to sexually dimorphic traits help with my women and gender studies term paper the human brain.
It has also been demonstrated that brain processing responds to the external environment. Learning, both of ideas and behaviors, appears to be coded in brain processes. It also appears that in several simplified cases this coding operates differently, but help with my women and gender studies term paper some ways equivalently, in the brains of men and women.
Differences in female and male use of language are likely reflections both of biological preferences and aptitudes, and of learned patterns. Two of the main fields that study brain structure, biological and other causes and behavioral and other results are brain neurology and biological psychology. Cognitive science is another important discipline in the field of brain research. Many of the more complicated human behaviors are influenced by both innate factors and by environmental ones, which include everything from genes, gene expression, and body chemistry, through diet and social pressures.
A large area of research in behavioral psychology collates evidence in an effort to discover correlations between behavior and various possible antecedents such as genetics, gene regulation, access to food and vitamins, culture, gender, hormones, physical and social development, and physical and social environments. A core research area within sociology is the way human behavior operates on itselfin other words, how the behavior of one group or individual influences the behavior of other groups or individuals.
Starting in the late 20th century, the feminist movement has contributed extensive study of gender and theories about it, notably within sociology but not restricted to it. Joan Acker believes gendering occurs in at least five different interacting social processes:  Looking at gender through a Foucauldian lens, gender is transfigured into a vehicle for the social division of power.
Help with my women and gender studies term paper difference is merely a construct of society used to enforce the distinctions made between what is assumed to be female and male, and allow for the domination of masculinity over femininity through the attribution of specific gender-related characteristics. These traits provide the foundations for the creation of hegemonic gender difference. It follows then, that gender can be assumed as the acquisition and internalisation of social norms.
Butler argues that gender is not an expression of what one is, but rather something that one does. Contemporary sociological reference to male and female gender roles typically uses masculinities and femininities in the plural rather than singular, suggesting diversity both within cultures as well as across them.
The difference between the sociological and popular definitions of gender involve a different dichotomy and focus. There is then, in relation to definition of and approaches to "gender", a tension between historic feminist sociology and contemporary homosexual sociology. Many pension systems have different retirement ages for men or women.
Marriage is usually only available to opposite-sex couples; in some countries and jurisdictions there are same-sex marriage laws. The question then arises as to what legally determines whether someone is female or male.
In most cases this can appear obvious, but the matter is complicated for intersex or transgender people. Different jurisdictions have adopted different help with my women and gender studies term paper to this question.
Almost all countries permit changes of legal gender status in cases of intersexualism, when the gender assignment made at birth is determined upon further investigation to be biologically inaccurate—technically, however, this is not a change of status per se. Rather, it is recognition of a status deemed to exist but unknown from birth. Increasingly, jurisdictions also provide a procedure for changes of legal gender for transgender people.
Gender assignmentwhen there are indications that genital sex might not help with my women and gender studies term paper decisive help with my women and gender studies term paper a particular case, is normally not defined by a single definition, but by a combination of conditions, including chromosomes and gonads.
Thus, for example, in many jurisdictions a person with XY chromosomes but female gonads could be recognized as female at birth. The ability to change legal gender for transgender people in particular has given rise to the phenomena in some jurisdictions of the same person having different genders for the purposes of different areas of the law. For example, in Australia prior to the Re Kevin decisions, transsexual people could be recognized as having the genders they identified with under many areas of the law, including social security law, but not for the law of marriage.
Thus, for a period, it was possible for the same person to have two different genders under Australian regia popular best essay writing website london der. It is also possible in federal systems for the same person to have one gender under state law and a different gender under federal law.
A third gender or third sex is a concept in which individuals are categorized, either by themselves or by society, as neither man nor woman. It also describes a social category present in those societies that recognize three or more genders. The first person known to be legally of indeterminate gender that is, neither man or woman in legal terms is Alex MacFarlanefrom Australia, whose status was reported in January For intersex people, born according to the UN Office of help with my women and gender studies term paper High Commissioner for Human Rights"do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies",  access to any form of identification document with a gender marker may be an issue.
These may be of various kinds, more or less loosely associated by analogy with various actual or perceived differences between men and women. Some grammatical gender systems go beyond, or ignore, the masculine-feminine distinction. Historically, science has been portrayed as a masculine pursuit in which women have faced significant barriers to participate. They believe that the difference in religiousity between genders is due to biological differences, for instance usually people seeking security in life are more religious, and as men are considered to be greater risk takers than women, they are less religious.
Although religious fanaticism is more often seen in men than women. The Taijitu and concept of the Zhou period reach into family and gender relations. Yin is female and yang is male. They fit together as two parts of a whole. The male principle was equated with the sun: active, bright, and shining; the female principle help with my women and gender studies term paper to the moon: passive, shaded, and reflective.
Male toughness was balanced by female gentleness, male action and initiative by female endurance and need for completion, and male leadership by female supportiveness. However, Judaism traditionally holds that God is completely non-corporeal, and thus neither male nor female.
As well, traditional Jewish culture dictates that there are six genders. In ChristianityGod is traditionally described in masculine terms and the Church has historically been described in feminine terms.
On the other hand, Christian theology in many churches distinguishes between the masculine images used of God Father, King, God the Son and the reality help with my women and gender studies term paper signify, which transcends gender, embodies all the virtues of both genders perfectly, which may be seen through the doctrine of Imago Dei.
In the New TestamentJesus at several times mentions with the masculine pronoun i. John among other verses. Hence, the Fatherthe Son and the Help with my women and gender studies term paper Spirit i. Trinity are all just click for source with the masculine pronoun; though the exact meaning of the masculinity of the Christian triune God is contended.
One of the several forms of the Hindu God Shivais Ardhanarishwar literally half-female God. Here Shiva manifests himself so that the left half is Female and the right half is Male. The left represents Shakti energy, power in the form of Goddess Parvati otherwise his consort and the right half Shiva.
Whereas Parvati is the cause of arousal of Kama desiresShiva is the killer. Shiva is pervaded by the power of Parvati and Parvati is pervaded by the power of Shiva. While the stone images may help with my women and gender studies term paper to represent a half-male and half-female God, the true symbolic representation is of a being the whole of which is Shiva and the whole of which is Shakti at the same time.
It is a 3-D representation of only shakti from one angle and only Shiva from the other. Shiva and Shakti are hence the same being help with my women and gender studies term paper a collective of Jnana knowledge and Kriya activity.
Adi Shankaracharya, the founder of non-dualistic philosophy Advaita—"not two" in Hindu thought says in his "Saundaryalahari"— Shivah Shaktayaa yukto yadi bhavati shaktah prabhavitum na che devum devona khalu kushalah spanditam api " i.
In click at this page absence of Shakti, He is not even able to stir. In fact, the term "Shiva" originated from "Shva," which implies a dead body. It is only through his inherent shakti that Shiva realizes his true nature. Recently, North American Native Americans and First Nations have adopted the term Two-Spirit to refer to the mosaic of different genders cross-culturally.
Gender inequality is most common in women dealing with poverty. Many women must shoulder all the responsibility of the household because they must take care of the family. Oftentimes this may include tasks such as tilling land, grinding grain, carrying water and cooking. Pearce coined the term feminization of poverty to describe the problem of women having higher rates of poverty. It is a program focused on the gender development of women to empower them and decrease the level of inequality between men and women.
On the other end of the spectrum, men are less concerned with damaging relationships and more focused on using anger as a means of affirming their masculinity. Gender and Development, unlike previous theories concerning women in development, includes a broader view of the effects of development on gender including economic, political, and social issues.
The theory takes a holistic approach to development and help with my women and gender studies term paper effects on women and recognizes the negative effects gender blind development policies have had on women. Prior toit was believed that development affected men and women in the same way and no gendered perspective existed for development studies.
However, the s saw a transformation in development theory that sought to incorporate women into existing development paradigms. Boserup argued that women were marginalized in the modernization process and practices of growth, development, and development policy threatened to actually make women worse off. The primary goal of WID was to include women into existing development initiatives, since it was argued that women were marginalized and excluded from the benefits of development.
In fact, women were tied to help with my women and gender studies term paper work hence were almost invisible in development programs. Some feminists [ who? The rise of criticism against the WID approach led to the emergence of a new theory, that of Women and Development WAD.
Also, rising criticism of the exclusion of men in WID and WAD led to a new theory termed Gender and Visit web page GAD.
At their most fundamental, GAD perspectives link the social relations of production with the social relations of reproduction — exploring why and how women and men are assigned to different roles and responsibilities in society, how these dynamics are reflected in social, economic, and political theories and institutions, and how these relationships affect development policy effectiveness.
According to proponents of GAD, women are cast not as passive recipients of development aid, but rather as active agents of change whose empowerment should be a central goal of development policy. The United Nations Millennium Declaration signed at the United Nations Millennium Summit in including eight goals that were to be reached byand although it would be a difficult task to reach them, all of them could be monitored.
Gender equality is also strongly linked to education. The Dakar Framework for Action set out ambitious goals: to eliminate gender disparities in primary and secondary education byand to achieve gender equality in education by The gender objective of the Dakar Framework for Action is somewhat different from the MDG Goal 3 Target 1 : "Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably byand in all levels of education no later than ". MDG Goal 3 does not comprise a reference to learner achievement and good quality basic education, but goes beyond the school level.
Educated mothers are more likely to send their children to school. The United Nations Development Programme UNDP has introduced indicators designed to add a gendered dimension to the Human Development Index HDI.
Additionally, inthe Gender-related Development Index GDI and the Gender Empowerment Measure GEM were introduced. More recently, inUNDP introduced help with my women and gender studies term paper new indicator, the Gender Inequality Index Help with my women and gender studies term paperwhich was designed to be a better measurement of gender inequality and to improve the shortcomings of GDI and GEM.
Gender is a topic of increasing concern within climate change policy and science. Furthermore, the intersection of climate change and gender raises questions regarding the more info and intersecting power relations arising from it. These differences, however, are mostly not due to biological or physical differences, but are formed by the social, institutional and legal context.
Subsequently, vulnerability is less an intrinsic feature of women and girls but rather a product of their marginalization. This is reflected in the fact that discourses of and negotiations over climate change are mostly dominated by men.
These changes occur mostly in communication, but more specifically during social interactions. One of the biggest reasons for this change is due to social media.
Over the past few years, the use of social media globally has started to rise. This rise can be contributed to the abundance of technology available for use among youth. Recent studies suggest that men help with my women and gender studies term paper women value and use technology differently. With social media increasing in popularity, pictures have become a large role in how many people communicate. Until then, gender will never truly be equal, which is a problem. Every help with my women and gender studies term paper also has the right to express their opinion, even though some might disagree, but it still gives each gender an equal amount of power to be heard.
Research has found that almost all U. According to a study conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation, to year olds spend — on average — over one and a half hours a day using a computer and 27 minutes per day visiting social network sites, which accounts for more than one fourth of their daily computer use. Studies have shown that female users tend to post more "cute" pictures, while male participants were more likely to post pictures of them doing action activities.
Women in the U. The study also found that males would post more alcohol and sexual references. Women referred to sexual references significantly more than males. Boys share more personal information, like their hometown and phone number.
While girls are more conservative about the personal information they allow to go public on these social networking sites. Boys, meanwhile, are more likely to orient towards technology, sports, and humor in the information they post to their profile.
Research in the s suggested that different genders display certain traits such as being active, attractive, dependent, dominant, independent, sentimental, sexy, and submissive when it comes to online interaction. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Gender disambiguation. Main articles: Gender identity and Gender role.
See also: Sex assignment. See also: Sex and gender distinction. See also: Sexual differentiationSexual dimorphismand Sex differences in humans. Main article: Gender studies.
Main article: XY sex-determination system. Main articles: Third gender and Genderqueer Main article: Legal recognition of intersex people See also: Women in science Further information: Gender and religion. Main article: Climate change and gender. Archives of Sexual Behavior.
Archived from the original on 30 January Retrieved 26 November Retrieved 20 March The Sociology of gender". Gender Roles: A Sociological Perspective PDF. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 3 August Modern Library NY, ]. Translated by Roberts, William Rhys. Oxford English Dictionary Online. Fine, and James S.
Sociological Perspectives on Social Psychology. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. The psychology of intergroup relations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. Journal of Economic Issues. The kaleidoscope of gender: prisms, patterns, and possibilities.
Gender Outlaw — On Men, Women and the rest of usVintage, ISBN pp. New York: Routledge, Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Third Sex Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History.
Neither Man Nor Woman: The Hijras of India. With Respect to Sex: Negotiating Hijra Identity in South India. Worlds of Desire: The Chicago Series on Sexuality, Gender, and CultureUniversity Of Chicago Press 1 July University of California Press. Academy of Marketing Science Review. Archived from the original PDF on 11 September New York: Basic Books. An Overview of the Sociology of Sex Roles.
GenderRoutledge p. The Sociologically Examined Life: Pieces of the Conversation Third Edition. Unjust: How The Broken Help with my women and gender studies term paper Justice System Fails Help with my women and gender studies term paper People. New York: Free Press. Women, Politics, and Public Policy: Go here Political Struggles of Canadian Women, 2nd ed.
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Geraldine Terry and Caroline Sweetman eds. Warwickshire: Practical Action Publishing, Oxfam GB. Retrieved 12 April Retrieved 14 April Andrew; Eichstaedt, Johannes C. A; Dong, Q; Day, K. Explaining why young adults use MySpace and Facebook through uses and gratifications theory 2 ed. Teens, Gender, and Self-Presentation in Social Media 2 ed. International encyclopedia of social and behavioral sciences. Conference Papers -- International Communication Association.
Media, Gender and Identity. Gender and sexual identities. Attraction to transgender people. Disorders of sex development.
Erotic target location error. Sex and gender distinction. Sexuality and gender identity-based cultures. Social construction of gender. Help with my women and gender studies term paper studies Gender Studies. Gender-specific and gender-neutral pronouns. Gender neutrality in languages with grammatical gender. Gender neutrality in genderless languages.
Gender neutrality in English. Gender marking in job titles. Gender bias on Help with my women and gender studies term paper. International Center for Research on Women ICRW. Equality and Human Rights Commission UK NGO. Gender in Bible translation. God and gender in Hinduism. DiscriminationFeminismGender and sexual identities. Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in. Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikipedia store.
Part of a series on. Rights of Transgender Persons Bill, Gender Recognition Act The Subjection of Women The Second Sex The Feminine Mystique The Female Eunuch The Creation of Patriarchy Feminism and the Mastery of Nature This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
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Undergraduate and graduate research papers or projects having to do with women, gender, sexuality, feminism, or feminist thinking which were completed at UWM during the previous year are eligible for entry. Instructors are encouraged to nominate student work they find to be particularly meritorious, although this is not a prerequisite for submission.
That is, students may submit their work on their own. The entries undergo a blind judging process. The decision of the judges is final. You may also wish to help with my women and gender studies term paper the WGS main office at for more information about the deadline, submission process, help with my women and gender studies term paper the Student Awards Ceremony.
For Faculty help with my women and gender studies term paper Staff. Annual UWM Student Research Paper and Project Contest. Guidelines and Entry Form. UWM Student Contest Guidelines, pdf.
UWM Student Contest Entry Form, pdf. Contact the WGS main office at for deadline information. Prizes are awarded in the following four categories:. Book reports will not be accepted. Undergraduate Project — Projects could include, for example, a piece or portfolio of art work, a video production, a curriculum design, a musical composition, an architectural or engineering design, an original literary piece such as a poem or short story, or an essay based primarily on personal or autobiographical reflection.
Please include an abstract. Graduate Research Paper — This paper, approximately double-spaced, typed pages, will likely utilize primary sources such as documents, statistical data, or interviews in an original research project written for a graduate course or seminar, or in an independent study.
Graduate Project — Projects could include, for example, a piece or portfolio of art work, a video production, a descriptive essay on design, a musical composition, an architectural or engineering design, an original literary piece such as a poem or short story. Projects should demonstrate a professional level of expertise. Papers and Projects submitted by students.
Students may submit their own work, without instructor nomination, by completing a submission form and help with my women and gender studies term paper the instructions in the detailed submission instructions listed below.
Papers and Projects http://cheapcarinsurancequoteswi.co/best-blog-post-writer-services-sf.php by instructors.
Instructors should send a letter stating why the work being nominated is meritorious. The student whose work is being nominated should be directed to fill out a submission form and attach it to the work that is submitted. Submit ONE unstapled copy of written work or ONE copy of a project. Written work must be typed, double-spaced, with a one-inch margin; all pages should be numbered consecutively including the bibliography.
All projects should be presented in as professional a manner as possible; for example, photos should be matted. Student name should be only on the submission form — not on click at this page title page or any other place within the paper or on the project. Include a title page that lists the title of the paper and its submission category.
A submission form completed by the student must accompany all papers and projects. The paper or project submitted for the contest may be a revision of the original professional dissertation ghostwriters website london proposal for the course.
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Gender identity refers to a personal identification with a particular gender and gender role in society. The term woman has historically been used interchangeably.
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Gender identity refers to a personal identification with a particular gender and gender role in society. The term woman has historically been used interchangeably.
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Women and Gender Studies Videotapes in the Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley.
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