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Proofreading is the reading of a galley proof or an electronic copy of a publication to detect and correct production errors of text or art. They often contain typos introduced through human error. Proofs are then returned to the typesetter or popular biography proofreading site sf artist for correction.
Correction-cycle proofs will typically have one descriptive term, such as bouncebumpor revise unique to the department or organization and used for clarity to the strict exclusion of any other. It is a common practice for all such corrections, no matter how slight, to be sent again to a proofreader to be checked and initialed, thus establishing the principle of higher responsibility for proofreaders as compared to their typesetters or artists.
Copy holding or copy reading employs two readers per proof. The first reads the text aloud read article as it appears, usually at a comparatively fast but uniform rate. The second reader follows along and marks any pertinent differences between what is read and what was typeset. This method is appropriate for large quantities of boilerplate text where it is assumed that the number of errors will be comparatively small.
Experienced copy holders employ various codes and verbal short-cuts that accompany their reading. Bang means an exclamation point. A thump or screamer made with a finger on the table represents the initial capcommaperiodor similar obvious attribute being read simultaneously. Thus the line of text: He said the address was Central Blvd. Mutual understanding is the only guiding principle, so codes evolve as opportunity permits.
Popular biography proofreading site sf the above example, article source popular biography proofreading site sf after buluhvuhd might be acceptable to proofreaders familiar with the text.
A single proofreader checks a proof in the traditional manner, but then passes it on to a second reader who repeats the process. Both initial the proof. Note that with both copy holding and click the following article reading, responsibility for a given proof is necessarily shared by two individuals. Scanningused to check popular biography proofreading site sf proof without reading it word for word, has become common with computerization of typesetting and the popularization of word processing.
Many publishers have their own proprietary typesetting systems,  while their customers use commercial programs such as Word. Before the data in a Word file can be published, it must be converted into a format used by the publisher. The end product is usually called a conversion. If a customer has already proofread the contents of a file before submitting it to a publisher, there will be no reason for another proofreader to re-read it from copy popular biography proofreading site sf this additional service may be requested and paid for.
Instead, the publisher is held responsible only for formatting errors, such as typeface, page width, and alignment of columns in tables ; and production errors such as text inadvertently deleted. To simplify matters further, a given conversion will usually be assigned a specific template.
Proofreaders are expected to be consistently accurate by default because they occupy the last stage of typographic production before publication.
Before it is typeset, copy is often marked up by an editor or customer with various instructions as to typefaces, art, and layout. Often these individuals will consult a style guide of varying degrees of complexity and completeness.
Such guides are usually produced in house by the staff or supplied by the customer, and should be distinguished from professional references such as The Chicago Manual of Stylethe AP StylebookThe Elements of Styleor Gregg Reference Manual. When appropriate, proofreaders may mark errors in accordance with their house guide instead of the copy when the two conflict.
Where this is the case, the proofreader may justifiably be considered a copy editor. Checklists are commonly employed in proof-rooms where there is sufficient uniformity of product to distill some or all of its components popular biography proofreading site sf a list format.
They may also act as a training tool for new hires. Checklists are never comprehensive, however: proofreaders still have to find all errors not mentioned or described on them, thus limiting their usefulness. The educational level of proofreaders in general is on a par with that of their co-workers. Typesetters, graphic artists, and word processors rarely need to have a college degreeand a perusal of on-line job listings for proofreaders will show that although listings may specify popular biography proofreading site sf degree for proofreaders, many do not.
Experience is discounted at the outset in preference to a credential, indicating a relatively low starting wage appropriate for younger applicants. In these kinds of multitasking desktop-publishing environments, human resources departments may even classify proofreading as a clerical skill generic to literacy itself.
Where this occurs, it is not unusual for proofreaders to find themselves guaranteeing the accuracy of higher-paid co-workers. In contrast, printerspublishersadvertising agencies and law firms tend not to specifically require a degree.
In these den popular argumentative essay writer website for masters Lane demanding single-tasking environments, the educational divide surrounds the production department instead of the http://cheapcarinsurancequoteswi.co/best-college-essay-writing-service-liverpool.php itself.
Promotion is rare for these proofreaders because they tend to be valued more for their present skill set than for any potential leadership ability. They are often supervised by a typesetter also without a degree, or by an administrative manager with little or no production experience who delegates day-to-day responsibilities to a typesetter. Numerous books are also available that instruct the basics to their readers. More info tools of self-preparation have by and large replaced formal workplace instruction.
Proofreader applicants are tested primarily on their spellingspeed, and skill in finding errors in sample text. Toward that end, they may be given a list of ten or twenty classically difficult words and a proofreading test, both tightly timed. The proofreading test will often have a maximum number of errors per quantity of text and a minimum amount of time to find them. The goal of this approach is to cheap university application letter examples those with the best skill set.
A contrasting approach to testing is to identify and reward persistence more than an arbitrarily high level of expertise. For the spelling portion of the test, that can be accomplished by providing a dictionary, lengthening the word list conspicuously, and making clear that the test is not timed. For popular biography proofreading site sf proofreading portion a suitable language-usage reference book e. Note that knowing where to find needed information in such specialized books is itself an effective component of the test.
Removing the pressure of what is essentially an ASAP deadline will identify those applicants with marginally greater reservoirs of persistence, stamina, and commitment. At the same time, by mooting the need for applicants to make use of a memorized list of difficult words and a studied knowledge popular biography proofreading site sf the more common grammatical traps affect, effect, lay, lieapplicants learn that their success depends primarily on a quality at least theoretically available to anyone at any time without preparation.
Formal employee testing is usually planned and announced well in advance, and may have titles, such as Levels TestingSkills Evaluationetc. They are found in corporate or governmental environments with a large enough HR staff to devote to preparing and administering the tests.
Usually this is done without warning, and sometimes it will be done popular biography proofreading site sf. It can be highly effective, and there will popular biography proofreading site sf be times when such re-reading is justified, but care must be taken. There are two basic approaches. The first is to re-read a proof within its deadline and in the department itself. Thus the manager will read from the same copy that the first reader saw, and be aware of any volume and deadline pressures the first reader was under, and can popular biography proofreading site sf observe the individual in real time.
This approach can also be followed as a matter of routine. The goal then is not to confirm a specific best ghostwriter site sf of poor job performance by a particular reader, but rather to confirm a general assumption that the proofreading staff needs ongoing monitoring. The second approach to informal testing is to wait for some days or weeks and then, as time allows, randomly select proofs to re-read while outside the department.
Such proofs may or may not be accompanied by popular biography proofreading site sf copy pages that the proofreader saw. Proofreading cannot be fully cost effective where click here or unpredictable work flow prevents proofreaders from managing their own time. Examples popular biography proofreading site sf newspapersthermographic trade printing of business cardsand network hubs.
The problem in each of these environments is that jobs cannot be put aside to be re-read as needed. In the popular biography proofreading site sf two cases, volumes and deadlines dictate that all jobs be click at this page as soon as possible; in the third case, jobs presently on-site at the hub are hurried, regardless of their formal deadline, in favor of possible future work that may arrive unpredictably.
Where proofs can programmatically [ clarification needed ] be read only once, quality will randomly but persistently fall below expectations.
Even the best and most experienced readers will not be able to be consistently popular biography proofreading site sf enough to justify premium pay. Production technology can go here moot the need to pay a premium for proofreading.
In the example of thermographic business-card printing, even when there are no reprints, there is considerable wastage of paper and ink in preparing each of the press runs, which are separated by color. When as often happens there is unused space available learn more here the platethere is no increase in production cost for reprints that use that space.
Only when reprints are so numerous that they push production staff into significant overtime would they increase costs. But significant overtime is usually the result of a high volume in new orders using up the eight-hour day. In such industries proofreading need only — and can only — make a marginal difference to be cost-effective.
Only where workload volume does not compress all deadlines to ASAP essay ghostwriters sites sf the workflow is reasonably predictable popular biography proofreading site sf proofreading be worth a premium wage.
Inflexible deadlines mandate a delivery time, but in doing so they necessarily do not mandate delivery before that time.
If deadlines are consistently maintained instead of arbitrarily moved up, proofreaders can manage their own time by putting proofs aside at their own discretion for re-reading later.
Whether the interval is a few seconds or overnight, it enables proofs to be viewed as both familiar and new. Where this procedure is followed, managers can expect consistently superior performance. However, re-reading focuses responsibility instead popular biography proofreading site sf dividing it as double-reading and copy holding, both described above, do and obviously requires extra effort from proofreaders and a measure of independence from management. Instead of managers controlling deadlines, deadlines control managers, and leeway is passed to the proofreaders as well as commensurate pay.
The term proofreading is sometimes used to refer to copy-editing, and vice versa. Although there is necessarily some overlap, proofreaders typically lack any real editorial or managerial authority.
What they can do is mark queries for typesetters, editors, or authors, provided those queries are few and pointed. To clarify matters at the outset, some advertised vacancies come with a notice that the job advertised is not a writing or editing position and will not become one. Creativity and critical thinking by their very nature conflict with the strict copy- following discipline that commercial and governmental proofreading requires. Thus proofreading and editing are fundamentally separate responsibilities.
In contrast, copy editors focus on a sentence-by-sentence analysis of the text to "clean it up" and make it all work together. The copy editor is usually the last editor that an author will work with. Copy editing focuses intensely on style, content, punctuation, grammarand consistency of usage. Under these conditions, proofreaders tend to see only what they want to see. Digital proofreading has taken many forms in recent years such as assistive software and grammar checking tools that have made locating and correcting errors very convenient for writers of all kinds.
As well, new popular biography proofreading site sf computing developments such popular biography proofreading site sf Google doc editing services have allowed for real-time editing and proofreading that can be done for clients while they watch the process, thus helping them to better their writing.
Nannetti read over a "limp galleypage", thinks "Proof fever". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For proofreading in DNA replicationsee Proofreading biology. Retrieved August 25, The book publishing process. Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in. Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikipedia store. Help About Wikipedia Community popular biography proofreading site sf Recent changes Contact page.
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