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American literature is the literature written or produced in the area of the United States and its preceding colonies. For more specific discussions of poetry and theater, see Poetry of the United States and Theater in the More info States.
During its early history, America was a series of British colonies on the eastern coast of the present-day United States. Therefore, its literary tradition begins as linked to the broader tradition of English literature. However, unique American characteristics and the breadth of its production usually now cause it to be considered a separate path and click the following article. The New England colonies were the center of early American literature.
The revolutionary period contained political writings by Samuel AdamsBenjamin Franklin and Thomas Paine. In the post-war period, Thomas Jefferson 's United States Declaration of Independence solidified his status as a key American writer. It was in the late 18th and early 19th centuries that the nation's first novels were published.
Best university essay proofreading websites the War of and an increasing desire to produce uniquely American literature and culture, a number of key new literary figures emerged, perhaps most prominently Washington Irving jede academic ghostwriter service toronto Milch Edgar Allan Poe.
InRalph Waldo Emerson — started a movement known as Transcendentalism. Henry David Thoreau — wrote Waldenwhich urges resistance to the dictates of organized society.
The political conflict surrounding abolitionism inspired the writings of William Lloyd Garrison and Harriet Beecher Stowe in her world-famous Uncle Tom's Cabin.
These efforts were supported by the continuation of the slave narrative autobiography, of which the best known example from this period was Frederick Check this out 's Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave.
Nathaniel Hawthorne — is notable for his masterpiece, The Scarlet Lettera novel about adultery. Hawthorne influenced Herman Melville — who popular literature review writers website united states notable for the books Moby-Dick and Billy Budd.
America's two greatest 19th-century poets were Walt Whitman — and Emily Dickinson — American popular literature review writers website united states reached a peak in the early-to-midth century, with such noted writers as Wallace StevensT. EliotRobert FrostEzra PoundHart Craneand E.
Mark Twain the pen name used by Samuel Langhorne Clemens— was the first major American writer to be born away from the East Coast. Henry James — was notable for novels like The Turn of the Screw. At the beginning of the 20th century, American novelists included Edith Wharton —Stephen Crane —Theodore Dreiser —and Jack London — Experimentation in style and form is seen in the works of Gertrude Stein — American writers expressed disillusionment following WW I.
The stories and novels of F. Scott Fitzgerald — capture the mood of the s, and John Dos Passos wrote about the war. Ernest Hemingway — became notable for The Sun Also Rises and A Farewell to Arms ; inhe won the Nobel Prize in Literature. William Faulkner — is notable for novels like The Sound and the Fury. Popular literature review writers website united states drama attained international status only in the s and s, with the works of Eugene O'Neillwho won four Pulitzer Prizes and the Nobel Prize.
In the middle of the 20th century, American drama was dominated by the work of playwrights Tennessee Williams and Arthur Milleras well as by the maturation of the American musical. Depression era writers included John Steinbeck —notable for his novel The Grapes of Wrath. Henry Miller assumed a unique place in American Literature in the s when his semi-autobiographical novels were banned from the US.
From the end of World War II up until, roughly, the late s and early s saw the publication of some of the most popular works in American history such as To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee.
America's involvement in World War II influenced the creation of works such as Norman Mailer 's The Naked and the DeadJoseph Heller 's Catch and Kurt Vonnegut Jr. John Updike was notable for help write popular analysis essay on novel Rabbit, Run Philip Roth explores Jewish identity in American society. From the early s to the present day the most popular literature review writers website united states literary movement has been postmodernism and the flowering of literature by ethnic minority writers.
Owing to the large immigration to Boston in the s, the high articulation of Puritan cultural ideals, and the early establishment of a college and a printing press in Cambridgethe New England colonies popular literature review writers website united states often been regarded as the center of early American literature.
However, the first European settlements in North America had been founded elsewhere many years earlier. Towns older than Boston include the Spanish settlements at Saint Augustine and Santa Fethe Dutch settlements at Albany and New Amsterdamas well as the English colony of Jamestown in present-day Virginia. During the colonial period, the printing press was active in many areas, from Cambridge and Boston to New YorkPhiladelphiaand Annapolis.
The dominance of the English language was popular literature review writers website united states inevitable. Moreover, we are now aware of the wealth of oral literary traditions already existing on the continent among the numerous different Native American groups.
Political events, however, would eventually make English the lingua franca for the colonies at large as well as the literary language of choice. For instance, when the English conquered New Amsterdam inthey renamed it New York and changed the administrative language from Dutch to English. From toonly about separate items were issued from the major printing presses in the American colonies.
This is a small number compared to the output of the printers in London at the time. London printers published materials written by New England authors, so the body of American literature was larger than what was published in North America.
However, printing was established in the American colonies before it was allowed in most of England. In England, restrictive laws had long confined printing to four locations, where the government could monitor what was published: London, York, Oxford, and Cambridge.
Because of this, the colonies ventured into the modern world earlier than their provincial English counterparts. Captain John Smith could be considered the first American author with his works: A True Relation of Such Occurrences and Accidents of Noate as Hath Happened in Virginia Other writers of this manner included Daniel DentonThomas AshWilliam PennGeorge PercyWilliam StracheyDaniel CoxeGabriel Thomas, and John Lawson. The religious disputes that prompted settlement in America were also topics of early writing.
A journal popular literature review writers website united states by John WinthropThe History of New Englanddiscussed the religious foundations of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
Edward Winslow also recorded a diary of the first years after the Mayflower 's arrival. This work outlined the ideal society he and his followers of separatists were about to build in an attempt to realize the "Puritan utopia". Other religiously influenced writers included Increase Mather and William Bradfordauthor of the journal published as a History of Plymouth Plantation, — Others like Roger Williams and Nathaniel Ward more fiercely argued state and church separation.
And still others, like Thomas Mortoncared little for the church; Morton's The New English Canaan mocked the religious settlers and declared that the Native Americans were actually better people than the British.
It was published in the same year that anti-Puritan Charles II http://cheapcarinsurancequoteswi.co/top-cheap-essay-editing-site-for-mba.php restored to the British throne. He followed it two years later with God's Controversy With New England. Nicholas Noyes was kommen dissertation conclusion writing website liverpool Гle known for his doggerel verse.
Other late writings described conflicts and interaction with the Indians, as seen in writings by Daniel GookinAlexander WhitakerJohn MasonBenjamin Churchand Mary Rowlandson. John Eliot translated the Bible into the Algonquin language.
Of the second generation of New England settlers, Cotton Mather stands out as a theologian and historian, who wrote read article history of the colonies with a view to God's activity in their midst and to connecting the Puritan leaders with the great heroes of the Christian faith.
Popular literature review writers website united states best-known works include the Magnalia Christi Americanathe Wonders of the Invisible World and The Biblia Americana. Popular literature review writers website united states Edwards and George Whitefield represented the Great Awakeninga religious revival in the early 18th century that asserted strict Calvinism. Other Puritan and religious writers include Thomas HookerThomas ShepardJohn Wiseand Samuel Willard.
Less strict and serious writers included Samuel Sewall who wrote a diary revealing the daily life of the late 17th century and Click Kemble Knight. New England was not the only area in the colonies; southern literature is represented by the diary of William Byrd of Virginia, as well as by The History of the Dividing Linewhich detailed the expedition to survey the swamp between Virginia and North Carolina but which also comments on the different lifestyles of the Native Americans and the white settlers in the area.
This era also saw the birth of Native American literature, through the two published works of Samson Occom : A Sermon Preached at the Execution of Moses Paul and a popular hymnbook, Collection of Hymns and Spiritual More info"the first Indian best-seller".
Two key figures were Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Paine. Franklin's Poor Richard's Almanac and The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin are esteemed works with their wit and influence toward the formation of a budding American identity. Paine's pamphlet Common Sense and The American Crisis writings are seen as playing a key role in influencing the political tone of click time.
Popular literature review writers website united states the revolution itself, poems and songs such as " Yankee Doodle " and " Nathan Hale " were popular.
Major satirists included John Trumbull and Francis Hopkinson. Philip Morin Freneau also wrote poems about the war's course. During the 18th century, writing shifted focus from the Puritanical ideals of Winthrop and Bradford to the power read article the human mind and rational thought. The belief that human and natural occurrences were messages from God no longer fit with the new human centered world.
Many intellectuals believed that the human mind could comprehend the universe through popular literature review writers website united states laws of physics as described by Isaac Newton.
One of these was Cotton Mather. The first book published in North America that promoted Newton and natural theology was Mather's The Christian Philosopher The enormous scientific, economic, social, cheap dissertation results proofreading website for university philosophical, changes of the 18th century, called the Enlightenmentimpacted the authority of clergyman and scripture, making way for democratic principles.
The increase in population helped account for the greater diversity of opinion in religious and political life as seen in the literature of this time.
Inthe population of the colonies numbered approximatelyThirty years later it was more thanByit reached 1, These new ideals are accounted for in the widespread popularity of Benjamin Franklin 's Autobiography. Even earlier than Franklin was Cadwallader Colden -whose book The History of the Five Indian Nationspublished in was one of the first texts critical of the treatment of the Iroquois in upstate New York by the English.
Colden also wrote a book on botany, which attracted the attention of Linnaeus, and he maintained a long term correspondence with Benjamin Franklin. In the post-war period, Thomas Jefferson 's United States Declaration of Independencehis influence on the United States Constitutionhis autobiography, the Notes on the State of Virginiaand his many letters solidify his spot as one of the most talented early American writers.
The Federalist essays by Alexander HamiltonJames Madisonand John Jay presented a significant historical discussion of American government organization and republican values. Fisher AmesJames Otisand Patrick Henry are also valued for popular literature review writers website united states political writings and writing websites liverpool esl. Much of the early literature of the new nation struggled to find a uniquely American voice in existing literary genre, and this tendency was also reflected in novels.
European forms and styles were often transferred to new locales and critics often saw them as inferior. These fictions were too lengthy to be printed as manuscript or public reading. Publishers took a chance on these works in hopes they would become steady sellers and need to be reprinted. This was a good bet as literacy rates soared in this period among both men and women. Among the first American novels are Thomas Attwood Digges ' "Adventures of Alonso", published in London in and William Hill Brown 's The Power of Sympathy published in This epistolary novel belongs to the Sentimental novel tradition, as do the two following.
In the next decade important women writers also published novels. Susanna Rowson is popular literature review writers website united states known for her novel, Charlotte: A Tale of Truthpublished in London in Charlotte Temple is a seduction tale, written in the third person, which popular literature review writers website united states against listening popular literature review writers website united states the voice of love and counsels resistance.
In addition to this best selling novel, she wrote nine novels, six theatrical works, two collections of poetry, six textbooks, and countless songs. Although Rowson was extremely popular in her time and is often acknowledged in accounts of the development of the early American novel, Charlotte Temple is often criticized as a sentimental novel of seduction.
Hannah Webster Foster 's The Coquette: Or, the History of Eliza Wharton was published in and was also extremely popular. Eliza is a "coquette" who is courted by two very different men: a clergyman who offers her the comfort and regularity of domestic life, and a noted libertine. She fails to choose between them and finds herself single when both men get married.
She eventually yields to the artful libertine and gives birth to an illegitimate stillborn visit web page at an inn. The Coquette is praised for its demonstration of this era's contradictory ideals of womanhood.
These novels are of the Sentimental genre, characterized by overindulgence in emotion, an invitation to listen to the voice of reason against misleading passions, as well as an optimistic overemphasis on the essential goodness of humanity. Sentimentalism is often thought to be a reaction against the Calvinistic belief in the depravity of human nature. He published Wieland inand in published OrmondEdgar Huntlyand Arthur Mervyn.
These novels are of the Gothic genre. The first author to be able to support himself through the income generated by his publications alone was Washington Irving. He completed his first major book in entitled A History of New-York from the Beginning of the World to the End of custom ghostwriting sites usa Dutch Dynasty.
Lydia Maria Child wrote Hobomok in and The Rebels in John Neal wrote Logan, A Family History inRachel Dyer inand The Down-Easters in Catherine Maria Sedgwick wrote A New England Tale inRedwood inHope Leslie inand The Linwoods in James Kirke Paulding wrote The Lion of the West inThe Dutchman's Fireside inand Westward Ho! Robert Montgomery Bird wrote Calavar in and Nick of the Woods in James Fenimore Cooper was also a notable author best known for his novel, The Last of the Mohicans written in popular literature review writers website united states He followed in with one of the country's first science fictions, A Voyage to the Moon: With Some Account of the Manners and Customs, Science and Philosophy, of the People of Morosofia, and Other Lunarians.
With the War popular literature review writers website united states and an increasing desire to produce uniquely American literature and culture, a number of key new literary figures emerged, perhaps most prominently Washington IrvingWilliam Cullen Bryantand James Fenimore Cooper.
Irving, often considered the first writer to develop a unique American style [ citation needed ] Chance popular report ghostwriters service australia und this has been debated wrote humorous works in Salmagundi and the satire A History of New York, by Diedrich Knickerbocker Bryant wrote early romantic and nature-inspired poetry, which evolved away from their European origins.
Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales about Natty Bumppo which includes The Last of the Mohicans were popular both in the new country and abroad. InEdgar Allan Poe began writing short stories — including " The Masque of the Red Death ", " The Pit popular literature review writers website united states the Pendulum ", " The Fall of the House of Usher ", and " The Murders in the Rue Morgue " — that explore previously hidden levels of human psychology and push the boundaries of fiction toward mystery and fantasy.
Humorous writers were also popular and included Seba Smith and Benjamin Penhallow Shillaber in New England and Davy CrockettAugustus Baldwin LongstreetJohnson J. HooperThomas Bangs Thorpeand George Washington Harris writing about the American frontier. The New England Brahmins were a group of writers connected to Harvard University and its seat in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The core included James Russell LowellHenry Wadsworth Longfellowand Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. InRalph Waldo Emerson —an ex-minister, published a startling nonfiction work called Naturein which he claimed it was possible to dispense with organized religion and reach a lofty spiritual state by studying and responding to the natural world. His work influenced not only the writers who gathered around him, forming a movement known as Transcendentalismbut also the public, who heard him lecture.
Emerson's most gifted fellow-thinker was perhaps Henry David Thoreau — popular literature review writers website united states, a resolute nonconformist. After living mostly by himself for two years in a popular literature review writers website united states by a wooded popular literature review writers website united states, Thoreau wrote Waldena book-length memoir that urges resistance to the meddlesome dictates of organized society.
His radical writings express a deep-rooted tendency toward individualism in the American character. Other writers influenced by Transcendentalism were Bronson AlcottMargaret FullerGeorge RipleyOrestes Brownsonand Jones Very. The political conflict surrounding abolitionism inspired the writings of William Lloyd Garrison and his paper The Liberatoralong with poet John Greenleaf Whittier and Harriet Beecher Stowe in her world-famous Uncle Tom's Cabin.
These efforts were supported by the continuation of the slave narrative autobiography, of which the best known examples from this period include Frederick Douglass 's Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American SlaveHarriet Jacobs 's Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl.
At the same time, Native American autobiography develops, most notably in William Apess 's A Son of the Forest and George Copway 's The Life, History and Travels of Just click for source. Moreover, minority authors were beginning to publish fiction, as in William Wells Brown 's Clotel; or, The President's DaughterFrank J.
Webb 's The Garies and Their FriendsMartin Delany 's Blake; or, The Huts of America and Harriet E. Wilson 's Our Nig as early African American novels, and John Rollin Ridge 's The Life and Adventures of Joaquin Murieta : The Celebrated California Banditwhich is considered the first Native American novel but which also is an early story about Mexican American issues. Inthe young Nathaniel Hawthorne — collected some of his stories as Twice-Told Talesa volume rich in symbolism and occult incidents.
Hawthorne went on to write full-length "romances", quasi-allegorical novels that explore such themes as guilt, pride, and emotional repression in his native New England. His masterpiece, The Scarlet Letteris the stark drama of a woman cast out of her community for committing adultery.
Hawthorne's fiction had a profound impact on his friend Herman Melville —who first made a name for himself by turning material from his seafaring days into exotic and sensational sea narrative novels.
Inspired by Hawthorne's focus on allegories and dark psychology, Melville went on to write romances replete with philosophical speculation. In Moby-Dickan adventurous whaling voyage becomes the vehicle for examining such themes as obsession, the nature of evil, and human struggle against the elements. In another fine work, the short novel Billy BuddMelville dramatizes the conflicting claims of duty and compassion on board a ship in time of war. His more profound books sold poorly, and he had been long forgotten by the time of his death.
He was rediscovered in the early decades of the 20th century. Anti-transcendental works from Melville, Hawthorne, and Poe all comprise the Dark Romanticism subgenre of literature popular during this time. American dramatic literature, by contrast, remained dependent on European models, popular literature review writers website united states many playwrights did attempt to apply these forms to American topics and themes, such as immigrants, westward expansion, temperance, etc.
At the same time, American playwrights created several long-lasting American character types, especially the "Yankee", the "Negro" and the "Indian", exemplified by the characters of JonathanSambo and Metamora. In addition, new dramatic forms were created in the Tom Showsthe showboat theater and the minstrel show. Among the best plays of the period are James Nelson Barker 's Superstition; or, the Fanatic FatherAnna Cora Mowatt 's Fashion; or, Life in New YorkNathaniel Bannister 's Putnam, the Iron Son of '76Dion Boucicault 's The Octoroon; or, Life in Louisianaand Cornelius Mathews 's Witchcraft; or, the Martyrs of Salem.
The Fireside Poets also known as the Popular literature review writers website united states or Household Poets were some of America's first major poets domestically and internationally.
They popular literature review writers website united states known for their poems being easy to memorize due to their general adherence to poetic form standard http://cheapcarinsurancequoteswi.co/esl-university-essay-ghostwriters-websites-gb.phpregular meterand rhymed stanzas and were often recited in the home hence the name as well as in school such as " Paul Revere's Ride "as well as working with distinctly American themes, including some political issues such as abolition.
They included Henry Wadsworth LongfellowWilliam Cullen BryantJohn Greenleaf WhittierJames Russell Lowelland Popular literature review writers website united states Wendell Holmes, Http://cheapcarinsurancequoteswi.co/bibliography-editor-services-liverpool.php. Longfellow achieved the highest level of acclaim and is often considered the first internationally acclaimed American poet, being the first American poet given a bust in Westminster Abbey's Poets' Corner.
Walt Whitman was a working man, a traveler, a self-appointed nurse during the American Civil War —and a poetic innovator. His magnum opus was Leaves of Grassin which he uses a free-flowing verse and lines of irregular length to depict the all-inclusiveness of American democracy. Taking that motif one step further, the poet equates the vast range of American experience with himself without being egotistical.
For example, in Song of Myselfthe long, central poem in Leaves of GrassWhitman writes: "These are really the thoughts of all men in all ages and lands, they are not original with me Popular literature review writers website united states Studies in Classic American Literaturethe English novelist D. Lawrence wrote click Whitman "was the first to smash the old moral conception that the soul of man is something 'superior' and 'above' the flesh.
Within its formal structure, her poetry is ingenious, witty, exquisitely wrought, and psychologically penetrating. Her work was unconventional for its day, and little of it was published during her lifetime. Many of her poems dwell on death, often with a mischievous twist. One, " Because I could not stop for Death ", begins, "He kindly stopped for me. Eliot and his The Waste LandRobert Frost and his North of Boston and New HampshireHart Crane and his White Buildings and the epic cycle, The BridgeEzra PoundWilliam Carlos Williams and his epic poem about his New Jersey hometown, PatersonMarianne MooreE.
CummingsEdna St. Vincent Millay popular literature review writers website united states Langston Hughesin addition to many others. Mark Twain the pen name used by Samuel Langhorne Clemens— was the first major American writer to be born away from the East Coast — in the border state of Missouri. His regional masterpieces were the memoir Life on the Mississippi and the novels Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Twain's style — influenced by journalism, wedded to the vernacular, direct and unadorned but also highly evocative and irreverently humorous — changed the way Americans write their language.
His characters speak like real people and sound distinctively American, using local dialects, newly invented words, and regional accents. Other writers interested in regional differences and dialect were George W.
CableThomas Nelson PageJoel Chandler HarrisMary Noailles Murfree Charles Egbert Craddock popular literature review writers website united states, Sarah Orne JewettMary E. Wilkins FreemanHenry Cuyler Bunnerand William Sydney Porter O. A version of local color regionalism that focused on minority experiences can be seen in the works of Charles W. William Dean Howells also represented the realist tradition through his novels, including The Rise of Silas Lapham and his work as editor of the Atlantic Monthly.
Henry James — confronted the Old World-New World dilemma by writing directly about it. Although born in New York City, he spent most of his adult years in England.
Many of his novels center on Americans who live in or travel to Europe. With its intricate, highly qualified sentences and dissection of emotional and psychological nuance, James's fiction can be daunting. Among his more accessible works are the novellas Daisy Millerabout an enchanting American girl in Europe, and The Turn of the Screwan enigmatic ghost story. Realism also influenced American drama of the period, in part through the works of Howells but also through the works of such Europeans as Ibsen and Zola.
Although realism was most influential in terms of set design and staging—audiences loved the special effects offered up by the popular melodramas—and in the growth of local color plays, it also showed up in the more subdued, less romantic tone that reflected the effects of the Civil War and continued social turmoil on the American psyche.
The most ambitious attempt at bringing modern realism into the drama was James Herne 's Margaret Flemingwhich addressed issues of social determinism through realistic dialogue, psychological insight and symbolism; the play was not a success, as Varizen best creative writing ghostwriting site kГnnten and audiences alike felt it dwelt too much on unseemly topics and included improper scenes, such as the main character nursing her husband's illegitimate child onstage.
Go here the beginning of the 20th century, American novelists were expanding fiction's social spectrum to encompass both high and low life and sometimes connected to the naturalist school of realism.
In her stories and novels, Edith Wharton — scrutinized the upper-class, Eastern-seaboard society in which she had grown up. One of her popular curriculum service nyc books, The Age of Innocencecenters on a man who chooses to marry a conventional, socially acceptable woman rather than a fascinating outsider.
At about the same time, Stephen Crane —best known for his Civil War novel The Red Badge of Couragedepicted the popular literature review writers website united states of New York City prostitutes in Maggie: A Girl of the Streets. And in Sister CarrieTheodore Dreiser — portrayed a country girl who moves to Chicago and becomes a kept woman.
Hamlin Garland and Frank Norris wrote about the problems of American farmers and other social issues from a naturalist perspective. More directly click at this page writings discussed social issues and power of corporations.
Some like Edward Bellamy in Looking Backward outlined other possible political and social frameworks. Upton Sinclairmost famous for his muck-raking novel The Jungleadvocated socialism. Other political writers of the period included Edwin MarkhamWilliam Vaughn Moody. Journalistic critics, including Ida M.
Tarbell and Lincoln Steffens were labeled The Muckrakers. Henry Brooks Adams ' literate autobiography, The Education of Henry Adams also depicted a stinging description of the education system and modern life. Race was a common issue as well, as seen in the work of Pauline Hopkinsan African-American woman who published five influential works from to discussing racial and sexual inequalities.
Similarly, Sui Sin Far wrote about Chinese-American experiences, Maria Cristina Mena wrote about Mexican-American experiences, and Zitkala-Sa wrote about Native American experiences. The s brought in effervescence of American literature, both in the states and in Paris and London. Many writers had direct experience of the World War, and used it to frame their writings. InGertrude Stein —by then an expatriate in Paris, published Three Livesan innovative work of fiction influenced by her familiarity with cubism, jazz, and other movements in contemporary art and music.
Stein labeled a group of American literary notables who lived in Paris in the s and s as the " Lost Generation ". The poet Ezra Pound — was born in Idaho but spent much of his adult life in Europe. His work is complex, sometimes obscure, with multiple references to other art forms and to a vast range of literature, both Western and Eastern. Eliot —another expatriate. Eliot wrote spare, cerebral poetry, carried by a dense structure of symbols. Sie esl admission essay ghostwriter website australia Anti The Waste Landhe embodied a jaundiced vision of post—World War I society in fragmented, haunted images.
Like Pound's, Eliot's poetry could be highly allusive, and some editions of The Waste Land come with footnotes supplied by the poet. InEliot won the Nobel Prize in Literature. American writers had long looked to European models for inspiration, but whereas the literary breakthroughs of the popular literature review writers website united states century popular literature review writers website united states from finding distinctly American styles and themes, writers from this period were finding ways of contributing to a flourishing international literary scene, not as imitators but as equals.
Something similar was happening back in the States, as Jewish writers such as Abraham Cahan used the English language to reach an international Jewish audience. American writers also expressed go here disillusionment following upon the war. Scott Fitzgerald — capture the restless, pleasure-hungry, defiant mood of the s.
Fitzgerald's characteristic theme, expressed poignantly in The Great Gatsbyis the tendency of youth's golden dreams to dissolve in failure and disappointment.
Fitzgerald also elucidates the collapse just click for source some key American Ideals, such as liberty, social unity, good governance and peace, features which were severely threatened by the pressures of modern early 20th century society.
John Dos Passos wrote about the war and also the U. He cut out unnecessary words from his continue reading, simplified the sentence structure, and concentrated on concrete objects and actions.
He adhered to a moral code that emphasized grace under pressure, and his protagonists were strong, silent men who often dealt awkwardly with women. The Sun Also Rises and A Farewell to Arms are generally considered his best novels; inhe won the Nobel Prize in Literature. Faulkner encompassed an enormous range of humanity in Yoknapatawpha Countya Mississippian popular literature review writers website united states of his own invention.
He recorded his characters' seemingly unedited ramblings in order to represent their inner states, a technique called " stream of consciousness ". In fact, these passages are carefully crafted, and their seemingly chaotic structure conceals multiple layers of meaning. He also jumbled time sequences to show how the past — especially the slave-holding era of the Deep South — endures in the present. Among his great works are Absalom, Absalom!
In the middle of the 20th century, American drama was dominated by the work of playwrights Tennessee Williams and Arthur Milleras well as by the maturation of the American musicalwhich had found a way to integrate script, music and dance in such works as Oklahoma!
Later American playwrights of importance include Edward AlbeeSam ShepardDavid MametAugust Wilson and Tony Kushner. Depression era popular literature review writers website united states was blunt and direct in its social criticism.
John Steinbeck — was born in Salinas, Californiawhere he set many of his stories. His style was simple and evocative, winning him the favor of the readers but not of the critics.
Steinbeck often wrote about poor, working-class people and their struggle to lead a decent and honest life. The Grapes of Wrathconsidered his masterpiece, is a strong, socially-oriented novel that tells the story of the Joads, a poor family from Oklahoma and their journey to California in search of a better life.
Other popular novels include Tortilla FlatOf Mice and MenCannery Rowand East of Eden. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in Steinbeck's contemporary, Nathanael West 's two most famous short novels, Miss Lonelyheartswhich plumbs the life of its eponymous antiheroa reluctant more info, to comic effect, male advice columnistand the effects the tragic letters exert on it, and The Day of the Locustwhich introduces a cast of Hollywood popular literature review writers website united states and explores the ironies of the movies, have come to be avowed classics of American literature.
In non-fiction, James Agee 's Let Us Now Praise Famous Men observes and depicts the lives of three struggling tenant-farming families in Alabama in Combining factual reportage with passages of literary complexity and poetic beauty, Agee presented a complete picture, an accurate, minutely detailed report of what he had popular literature review writers website united states coupled with insight into his feelings about the experience and the difficulties of capturing it for a broad audience.
In doing so, he created an enduring portrait of a nearly invisible segment of the American population. Henry Miller assumed a unique place in American Literature in the s when his semi-autobiographical novels, written and published in Paris, were banned from the US. Although his major works, including Tropic of Cancer and Black Springwould not be free of the label of obscenity untiltheir themes and stylistic innovations had already exerted a major influence on succeeding generations of American writers, and paved the way for sexually frank s novels by John UpdikePhilip RothGore VidalJohn Rechy and William Styron.
The period in time from the end of World War II up until, roughly, the late s and early s saw the publication of some of the most popular works in American history such as To Popular literature review writers website united states a Mockingbird by Harper Lee.
The last few of the more realistic modernists along with the wildly Romantic beatniks largely dominated the period, while the direct respondents to America's involvement in World War II contributed in their notable influence. Though born in Canada, Chicago-raised Saul Bellow would become one of the most influential novelists in America in the decades directly following World War II. In works like The Adventures of Augie March and HerzogBellow painted vivid portraits of the American city and the distinctive characters that peopled it.
Bellow went on to win the Nobel Prize for Literature in Salinger 's Nine Stories and The Catcher in the Rye to Sylvia Plath 's The Bell Jarthe perceived popular literature review writers website united states of the state of affairs in America was brought to the forefront of the nation's literary expression.
Immigrant authors such as Vladimir Nabokovwith Lolitaforged on with the theme, and, at almost the same time, the beatniks took a concerted step away from their Lost Generation predecessors, developing a style and tone of their own by drawing on Eastern theology and experimenting with recreational drugs. The poetry and fiction of the " Popular literature review writers website united states Generation ", largely born of a circle of intellects formed in New York City around Columbia University and established more officially some time later in San Francisco, came of age.
The term Beat referred, all at the same time, to the countercultural rhythm of the Jazz scene, to a sense of rebellion regarding the conservative stress of post-war society, and to an interest in new forms of spiritual experience through drugs, alcohol, philosophy, and religion, and specifically through Zen Buddhism. Allen Ginsberg popular literature review writers website united states the tone of the movement in his best article service sf Howla Whitmanesque work that began: "I saw the best minds of my generation destroyed by madness Burroughs 's Naked Luncha more experimental work structured as a series of vignettes relating, among other things, the narrator's travels and experiments with hard drugs.
Regarding the war novel specifically, there was a literary explosion in America during the post—World War II era. Some of the best known of the works produced included Norman Mailer 's The Naked and the DeadJoseph Heller 's Catch and Kurt Vonnegut Jr. The Moviegoerby Southern author Walker Percywinner of the National Book Award, was his attempt at exploring "the dislocation of man in the modern age.
His novel Rabbit, Runthe first of four chronicling the rising and falling fortunes of Harry "Rabbit" Angstrom over the course of four decades against the backdrop popular literature review writers website united states the major events of the second half of the 20th century, broke new ground on its release in its characterization and detail of the American middle class and frank discussion of taboo topics such as adultery.
Notable among Updike's characteristic innovations was his use of present-tense narration, his rich, stylized language, and his attention to sensual detail. His work is also deeply imbued with Christian themes. The two final installments of the Rabbit series, Rabbit is Rich and Rabbit at Restwere both awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction. Other notable works include the Henry Bech novels —98The Witches of EastwickRoger's Version and In the Beauty of the Lilieswhich literary critic Michiko Kakutani called "arguably his finest.
Roth vigorously explores Jewish identity in American society, especially in the postwar era and the early 21st century. Frequently set in Newark, New JerseyRoth's work http://cheapcarinsurancequoteswi.co/order-journalism-dissertation-abstract.php known to popular literature review writers website united states highly autobiographical, and many of Roth's main characters, most famously the Jewish novelist Nathan Zuckermanare thought to be alter egos of Roth.
With these techniques, and armed with his articulate and fast-paced style, Roth explores the distinction between reality and fiction in literature while provocatively examining American culture. His most famous work includes the Zuckerman popular literature review writers website united states, the controversial Portnoy's Complaintand Goodbye, Columbus Among the most decorated American writers of his generation, he has won every major American literary award, including the Pulitzer Prize for his major novel American Pastoral In the realm of African-American literature, Ralph Ellison 's novel Invisible Man was instantly recognized as among the most powerful and important works of the immediate post-war years.
The story of a black Underground Man in the urban north, the novel laid bare the often repressed racial tension that still prevailed while also succeeding as an existential character study. Richard Wright was catapulted to fame by the publication in subsequent years of his now widely studied short story, " The Man Who Was Almost a Man "and his controversial second novel, Native Http://cheapcarinsurancequoteswi.co/top-reflective-essay-ghostwriting-website-usa.phpand his legacy was cemented by the publication of Black Boya work in which Wright drew on his popular literature review writers website united states and mostly autodidactic education in the segregated South, fictionalizing and exaggerating some elements as he saw fit.
Because of its polemical themes and Wright's involvement with the Communist Partythe novel's final part, "American Hunger," was not published until Perhaps the most ambitious and challenging post-war American novelist was William Gaddiswhose uncompromising, satiric, and gargantuan novels, such as The Recognitions and J R are presented largely in terms of unattributed dialog that requires almost unexampled reader participation. Gaddis's primary themes include forgery, capitalism, religious zealotry, and the legal system, constituting a sustained polyphonic critique of the chaos and chicanery of modern American life.
Gaddis's work, though largely ignored for years, anticipated and influenced the development of such ambitious "postmodern" fiction writers as Thomas Pynchon, Joseph McElroyand Don DeLillo.
Another neglected and challenging postwar American novelist, albeit one who wrote much shorter works, was John Hawkeswhose often surreal, visionary fiction addresses themes of violence and eroticism and experiments audaciously with narrative voice and style. Among his most important works is the short nightmarish novel The Lime Twig In the postwar period, the art of the go here story again flourished.
Among its most respected practitioners was Flannery O'Connor b. March 25, in Georgia — d. August 3, in Georgiawho renewed the fascination of such giants as Faulkner and Twain with the American south, developing a distinctive Southern gothic esthetic wherein characters acted at one level as people and at another as symbols.
A devout Catholic, O'Connor often imbued her stories, among them the widely studied " A Good Man is Hard to Find " and " Everything That Rises Must Converge ", and two novels, Wise Blood ; The Violent Bear It Awaywith deeply religious themes, focusing particularly on the search for truth and religious skepticism against the backdrop of the nuclear age.
Other important practitioners of the form include Katherine Anne PorterEudora WeltyJohn CheeverRaymond CarverTobias Wolffand the more experimental Donald Barthelme. Ammonswhose Collected Poems won a National Book Award popular literature review writers website united states and entsteht popular critical essay editing services online gilt long poem Garbage earned him another in ; Theodore Roethke and his The Waking Pulitzer Prize for Poetry, ; James Merrill and his epic poem of communication with the dead, The Changing Light at Sandover Pulitzer Prize for Poetry, ; Louise Glück for her The Wild Iris Pulitzer Prize for Poetry, ; W.
Merwin for his The Carrier of Ladders Pulitzer Prize for Poetry, and The Shadow of Sirius Pulitzer Prize for Poetry, ; Mark Strand for Blizzard of One Pulitzer Prize for Poetry, ; Robert Hass popular literature review writers website united states his Time and Materials, which won both the Pulitzer Prize and National Book Award for Poetry in and respectively; and Rita Dove for her Thomas and Beulah Pulitzer Prize for Poetry, In addition, in this same period the confessionalwhose origin is often traced to the publication in of Robert Lowell 's Life Studies and beat schools of poetry enjoyed popular and academic success, producing such widely anthologized voices as Allen GinsbergCharles BukowskiGary SnyderAnne Sextonand Sylvia Plathamong many others.
Though its exact parameters remain debatable, from the early s to the present day the most salient literary movement has been postmodernism. Thomas Pynchona seminal practitioner of the form, drew in his work on modernist fixtures such as temporal distortion, unreliable narrators, and internal monologue and coupled them with distinctly postmodern techniques such as metafictionideogrammatic characterization, unrealistic names Oedipa Maas, Benny Profane, etc.
Inhe published Gravity's Rainbowa leading work in this genre, which writers site canada dissertation cheap conclusion the National Book Award and was unanimously nominated for the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction that year. His other major works include his debut, V. Toni Morrisonthe most recent American recipient of the Nobel Prize for Literature, writing in a distinctive lyrical prose style, published her controversial debut novel, The Bluest Eyeto widespread critical acclaim in Coming on the heels of the signing of the Civil Rights Act ofthe novel, widely studied in American schools, includes an elaborate description of incestuous rape and explores the conventions of beauty established by a historically racist society, painting a portrait of a self-immolating black family in search of beauty in whiteness.
Since then, Morrison has experimented with lyric fantasy, as in her two best-known later works, Song of Solomon and Belovedfor which she was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction; along these lines, critic Harold Bloom has drawn favorable comparisons to Virginia Woolf and the Nobel committee to "Faulkner and to the Latin American tradition [of magical realism ]. He writes in the Southern Gothic aesthetic in his distinctly Faulknerian debut, The Orchard Keeperand Suttree ; in the Epic Western tradition, with grotesquely drawn characters and symbolic narrative turns reminiscent of Melville, in Blood Meridianwhich Harold Bloom styled "the greatest single book since Faulkner's As I Lay Dying ," calling the character of Judge Holden "short of Moby Dickthe most monstrous apparition in all of American literature";  in a much more pastoral tone in his celebrated Border Trilogy —98 of bildungsromansincluding All the Pretty Horseswinner of the National Book Award ; and in the post-apocalyptic genre in the Pulitzer Prize-winning The Road His novels are noted for achieving both commercial and critical success, several of his works having been adapted to film.
Don DeLillowho rose to literary prominence with the publication of his novel, White Noisea work broaching the subjects of death and consumerism and doubling as a piece of comic social criticism, began his writing career in with Americana.
He is listed by Harold Bloom as being among the preeminent contemporary American writers, in the company of such figures as Philip Roth, Cormac McCarthy, and Thomas Pynchon. Seizing on the distinctly postmodern techniques of digressionnarrative fragmentation and elaborate symbolismand strongly influenced by the works of Thomas Pynchon, David Foster Wallace began his writing career with The Broom of the Systempublished to moderate acclaim in His second novel, Infinite Jesta futuristic portrait of America and a playful critique of the media-saturated nature of Click here life, has been consistently ranked among the most important works of the 20th century,  and his final novel, unfinished at the time of his death, The Pale Kinghas garnered much praise and attention.
In addition to his novels, he also authored three acclaimed short story collections: Girl with Curious HairBrief Interviews with Hideous Men and Oblivion: Stories Jonathan FranzenWallace's friend and contemporary, rose to prominence after the publication of his National Book Award -winning third novel, The Corrections. He began his writing career in with the well-received The Twenty-Seventh Citya novel centering on his native St. Louisbut did not gain national attention until the publication of his essay, "Perchance to Dream," in Harper's Magazinediscussing the cultural role of the writer in the new millennium through the prism of his own frustrations.
The Correctionsa tragicomedy about the disintegrating Lambert family, has been called "the literary phenomenon of [its] decade"  and was ranked as one of the greatest novels of the past century. This development came alongside the growth of the Civil Rights movements and its corollary, the Ethnic Pride movement, which led to the creation of Ethnic Studies programs in most major universities.
These programs helped establish the new ethnic literature as worthy objects of academic study, alongside such other new areas of literary study as women's literaturegay and lesbian literatureworking-class literature, postcolonial literatureand the rise of literary theory as a key component of academic literary study.
After being relegated to cookbooks and autobiographies for most of the 20th century, Asian American literature achieved widespread notice through Maxine Hong Kingston 's fictional memoir, The Woman Warriorand her novels China Men and Tripmaster Monkey: His Fake Book.
Indian-American author Jhumpa Lahiri won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction for her debut collection of short stories, Interpreter of Maladiesand went on to write a well-received novel, The Namesakewhich was shortly adapted to film in In website annotated phd for ghostwriting best bibliography second popular literature review writers website united states of stories, Unaccustomed Earthreleased to widespread commercial popular literature review writers website united states critical success, Lahiri shifts focus and treats the experiences of the second and third generation.
Other notable Asian-American but not immigrant novelists include Amy Tanbest known for her novel, The Joy Luck Clubtracing the lives of four immigrant families brought together by the game of Mahjongand Korean American novelist Chang-Rae Leewho has published Native SpeakerA Gesture Lifeand Aloft. Such poets http://cheapcarinsurancequoteswi.co/best-analysis-essay-ghostwriting-service-sf.php Marilyn Chin and Li-Young LeeKimiko Hahn and Janice Mirikitani have also achieved prominence, as has playwright David Henry Hwang.
Equally important has been the effort to recover earlier Asian American authors, started by Frank Chin and his colleagues; this effort has brought Sui Sin FarToshio MoriCarlos BulosanJohn OkadaHisaye Yamamoto and usa statement for writers popular personal hire to prominence.
Celebrated Puerto Rican novelists who write in English and Spanish include Giannina Braschiauthor of the Spanglish classic Yo-Yo Boing! Scott Momaday 's Pulitzer Prize—winning House Made of DawnNative American literature showed write book review growth during this period, known as the Native American Renaissancethrough such novelists popular literature review writers website united states Leslie Marmon Silko e.
The success of these authors has brought renewed attention to earlier generations, including Zitkala-SaJohn Joseph MathewsD'Arcy McNickle and Mourning Dove.
More recently, Arab American literature, largely unnoticed since the New York Pen League of the s, has become more prominent through the work of Diana Abu-Jaberwhose novels include Arabian Jazz and Crescent and the memoir The Language of Baklava.
Other important authors include Etel AdnanRabih Alameddine and poet Naomi Shihab Nye. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: American poetry. See also: Theater of the United States Further information: List of writers of the Lost Generation. Further information: Nobel Prize in Literature See also: Category:American literary awards See also: Category:American literary critics. Edgar Allan Poe : Dark Romanticism, Short-Story Theory.
Harold Bloom : Aestheticism. Susan Sontag : Against InterpretationOn Photography. Abrams : The Mirror and editing sites essay popular phd for Lamp study of Romanticism.
Matthiessen : originated the article ghostwriters for professional toronto hire " American Renaissance ". Perry Miller : Puritan studies. Henry Nash Smith : founder of the "Myth and Symbol School" of American criticism. Leo Marx : The Machine in the Garden study of technology and culture.
Leslie Fiedler : Love and Death in the American Novel. Stanley Fish : Pragmatism. Henry Louis Gates : African American literary theory. Gerald Vizenor : Native American literary theory. William Dean Howells : Literary realism. Stephen Greenblatt : New Historicism. Geoffrey Hartman : Yale school of deconstruction. John Crowe Ransom : New Criticism. Cleanth Brooks : New Criticism. Kenneth Burke : Rhetoric studies. Elaine Showalter : Feminist criticism. Gilbert : Feminist criticism. Susan Gubar : Feminist custom essay editor sf. Hillis Miller : Deconstruction.
Edward Said : Postcolonial criticism. Jonathan Culler : Critical theory, deconstruction. Judith Butler : Post-structuralist feminism. Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick : Queer theory. Fredric Jameson : Marxist criticism. The Norton Anthology of American Literature. American LiteratureBarron's Educational, A History of American Literature. Atlanta: The Franklin Printing and Publishing Co. American Transcendentalism: A History. New York: Hill and Wang, 7—8. Matthews, William Faulkner: seeing through the South Wiley, The New York Times Books.
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Collapse of the Soviet Union. Water supply and sanitation. Code of Federal Regulations. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Public Health Service Corps. List of states and territories of the United States.
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Local government in the United States. District of Columbia statehood movement. Red states and blue states. Black American Sign Language. Professional and working class conflict. Separation of church and state. Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in. Popular literature review writers website united states page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikipedia store.
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Origins of Book Censorship in the United States. The origins of Book censorship in the United States do not commence until the mid-nineteenth century.
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American literature is the literature written or produced in the area of the United States and its preceding colonies. For more specific discussions of poetry and.
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On January 20, , the United States of America celebrated the inauguration of its 45th president. Newly elected President Donald J. Trump gave his inaugural.
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American literature is the literature written or produced in the area of the United States and its preceding colonies. For more specific discussions of poetry and.